Department of Chemistry, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia
Received: 04-Mar-2022, Manuscript No.JCHEM-22-59996; Editor assigned: 07-Mar-2022, Pre QC No. JCHEM-22-59996 (PQ); Reviewed: 21-Mar-2022, QC No. JCHEM-22-59996; Revised: 24-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. JCHEM-22-59996 (A); Published: 31-Mar-2022, DOI: 10.4172/2319-9849.11.3.e001.
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Spectroscopy is the study of the interaction between matter and electromagnetic radiation as a function of the wavelength or frequency of the radiation. Radiative energy includes matter waves and acoustic waves, and gravitational waves have recently been linked to a spectral signature in the context of the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO).
Spectroscopy; Gravitational-Wave Observatory; Electromagnetic spectrum; Spectrum
In layman's words, spectroscopy is the precise study of color as it applies to all bands of the electromagnetic spectrum, starting with visible light. Spectroscopy began as a study of the wavelength dependence of the absorption of visible light dispersed by a prism by gas phase materials .
Spectroscopy, particularly in the electromagnetic spectrum, is a fundamental exploratory tool in the fields of physics, chemistry, and astronomy, allowing researchers to investigate the composition, physical structure, and electronic structure of matter at the atomic, molecular, and macro scales, as well as over vast distances. Biomedical spectroscopy in the areas of tissue analysis and medical imaging are important applications .
Spectroscopy is a field of science that studies the spectra of electromagnetic radiation as a function of wavelength or frequency using spectrographic equipment and other techniques to learn about the structure and properties of materials . Spectrometers, spectrophotometers, spectrographs, and spectral analyzers are all terms for spectrum measurement instruments.
In the laboratory, most spectroscopic analysis begins with a sample to be analyzed, followed by the selection of a light source from any desired range of th5e light spectrum, and finally the light passing through the sample to a dispersion array (diffraction grating instrument) and capture by a photodiode . The light dispersion device must be installed on the telescope for astronomical applications. This simple configuration can be used in a number of different ways. Optics was the name given to the science of spectroscopy when Isaac Newton split light with a prism . As a result, it was originally the study of visible light, which we call color, that eventually expanded to embrace the entire electromagnetic spectrum thanks to James Clerk Maxwell's research .
Although color is used in spectroscopy, it is not the same as the color of elements or objects, which is determined by the absorption and reflection of certain electromagnetic waves. Rather, spectroscopy is the process of splitting light with a prism, diffraction grating, or other device to produce a discrete line pattern called a "spectrum" that is unique to each type of element. Most elements are first put into a gaseous phase to investigate their spectra, while additional methods can now be employed on other phases . Depending on whether the element is being cooled or heated, each element diffracted by a prism-like apparatus shows either an absorption spectrum or an emission spectrum.
Until recently, all spectroscopy involved the analysis of line spectra, and this is still the case for the majority of spectroscopy. The branch of spectroscopy that analyses spectra called vibrational spectroscopy. However, recent advances in spectroscopy have made the dispersion technique obsolete in some cases . Absorption and light scattering techniques are used in biochemical spectroscopy to acquire information about biological tissue. Light scattering spectroscopy is a type of reflectance spectroscopy that uses elastic scattering to determine tissue architecture. The tissue, in this situation, works as a diffraction or dispersion mechanism.
Because the first useful atomic models described the spectra of Hydrogen, such as the Bohr model, the Schrödinger equation, and Matrix mechanics, which all can produce the spectral lines of Hydrogen, providing the basis for discrete quantum jumps to match the discrete hydrogen spectrum, spectroscopic studies were crucial to the development of quantum mechanics . Also, because he was comparing the wavelength of light with the temperature of a Black Body using a photometer, Max Planck's explanation of blackbody radiation involves spectroscopy. Because atoms and molecules have distinct spectra, spectroscopy is employed in physical and analytical chemistry.
As a result, these spectra can be utilized to detect, identify, and measure atom and molecule information. On Earth, spectroscopy is utilized in astronomy and remote sensing. Spectrographs are found on almost all research telescopes . The chemical composition and physical attributes of astronomical objects are determined using the measured spectra (such as their temperature, density of elements in a star, velocity, black holes and more). Biochemistry is a major application of spectroscopy. The species identity and energy content of molecular samples can be determined.
Spectroscopy is based on the idea that light is made up of distinct wavelengths, each of which corresponds to a particular frequency. The importance of spectroscopy stems from the fact that each element in the periodic table has its own light spectrum, which is defined by the frequencies of light it emits or absorbs that always appear in the same portion of the electromagnetic spectrum when diffracted. This opened up a whole new field of research into anything that has atoms, which includes everything. Understanding the atomic characteristics of all stuff requires spectroscopy. As a result, spectroscopy uncovered numerous previously unknown sub-fields of study .
Because of the concept that each atomic element has its own spectral signature, spectroscopy has been used to a wide range of domains, each having a specific aim that can be attained through different spectroscopic processes. The government maintains a public Atomic Spectra Database on its NIST website, which is constantly updated with increasingly exact measurements because these distinct spectral lines for each element are so significant in so many disciplines of science.
The subject of spectroscopy has expanded due to the fact that any section of the electromagnetic spectrum, from infrared to ultraviolet, can be utilized to evaluate a sample, giving scientists multiple properties about the same material.