A General Understanding on the Common Health Issues of Woman: An Opinion
Devaki B1* and Avinash G2
1Masters in Pharmacy, Vignan Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, India
2Vaagdevi College of Pharmacy, Warangal, Telangana, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Devaki B
Masters in Pharmacy
Vignan Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, India.
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date 30-07-2016; Accepted date 20-08-2016; Published date 30-08-2016
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ABSTRACT The present study is aimed to bring some changes in the lifestyle of women that brings changes in menstrual character. This study helps to aware lot of women population who is suffering from heavy cramps, emesis, and other common symptoms. Premenstrual syndrome is combination of both physical and emotional disturbances that occur after women ovulate and end with menstruation. PMS is caused by an imbalance in the estrogen to progesterone ratio, with a relative deficiency in progesterone. A more severe kind of PMS, referred as premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD), happens in a smaller variety of women (2-6%). In this literature it also explains multiple methods to reduce menstrual cramps which assures no disturbances in their daily work, either it may be to a teenager or to lady of 25-30 age.
Menstrual cramps, Pregnancy, Progesterone, Endometrium, Estrogen
Menstrual cycle is series of changes which is observed in women’s body that prepares for the pregnancy. Once in a month the uterus grows a new endometrium (lining) which is getting ready for the fertilized egg. If it does not find a fertilized egg for pregnancy the uterus itself sheds its lining which is known as menstrual bleeding, were women experience from early teen years till the age of 50 which is called as menopause [1-10]. Girls will start having their menstrual periods between the age of 11 and 14, were women starts to have fewer periods at the age of 40-50. The duration of the menstrual cycle, usually occurs every 28 days varies from 4-10 days on an average of 6 days. The hormones play the major role in controlling the menstrual cycle among which estrogen and progesterone plays biggest role which helps uterus to change for its every cycle.
The female hormonal system consists of three hierarchies of hormones, as follows:
1. A hypothalamic releasing hormone, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH).
2. The anterior pituitary sex hormones, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH).
3. The ovarian hormones, estrogen and progesterone, which are secreted by the ovaries in response to the two female sex hormones from the anterior pituitary gland.
Function of estrogen is to build thin new lining were as progesterone increase its level once the ovary releases an egg. If there is a drop in levels of progesterone along with the estrogen then uterus ready to shed the lining that is how periods starts [11-15]. Even a mild change in the hormone level may effects the cycle or fertility; also there are few more changes that may alter the cycle which includes obesity, losing lot of weight, stress abortion pills, etc. (Figure 1).
Figure 1:A girl suffering from cramps.
Symptoms during Menstrual Cycle
Majorly observed symptom is that few women’s suffer from cramps and few may not, but there few other symptoms that are experienced before and after the cycle [15-20]. As majorly PMS is caused by an imbalance in the estrogen to progesterone ratio, with a relative deficiency in progesterone some after few research it was observed that by administration of progesterone hormone during the second half of the menstrual cycle may lower the severity of premenstrual symptoms in few women. During the onset of menstrual bleeding their might be some psychological event in few women’s [20-25]. These women may have negative and extreme thoughts about menstruation which further induces the severity of premenstrual symptoms. The symptoms that are observed in few women’s a week before a period is known as premenstrual symptoms which include as follows:
• Tense or Angry
• Breast may feel tender
• Gain body weight
A day before the intolerable period cramps in belly, legs and back is also majorly observed in few cases, due to periods they also feel low level of energy in their body. Because of this cramps in belly some may also experience vomiting (emesis), diarrhea, but majorly these symptoms are not seen after one day of the period cycle. And some have heavy bleeding during the period [25-30].
How to Manage and Control the Menstrual Symptoms?
In order to handle the menstrual changes which occur in the body, girls may prefer regular exercise, yoga, taking a healthy diet (which includes rich in iron), control on intake of caffeine and alcohol content, and reducing stress prior to premenstrual symptoms. A wide variety of herbal and mineral supplements also been suggested in the literature that would be effective in reducing the severity and duration of the premenstrual symptoms. These include but not limited to daily calcium supplements (1000 mg) , magnesium (200 mg), vitamin E (400 units), vitamin B6 (pyridoxine), chaste tree (chaste berry or Vitex agnus castus), St John’s Wort, evening primrose oil (3000–4000 mg), Black Cohosh and Dandelion [30-40]. So by following the above habits in the daily lifestyle of girl may leads to normal period.
There are few more methods to reduce the symptoms during cycle are:
Mostly women’s should try no-prescription type of treatment, only when the cramps are not in control then one may prefer for medication in which mostly suggested drug which comes under the classification of NSAIDs (non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs) like: Ibuprofen, Diclofinac and Meftal Spas which is combination of both NSAID and anticholinergic, by taking these pills it may reduce the cramps by lowering the levels of prostaglandin, but mostly suggested to take only after prescription [41-50]. But mostly aspirin is not suggested to girls of age below 20 years as they may be exposed to Reye Syndrome as this is very dangerous disorder that may be sometimes may leads to lethal condition.
Even there is no relief in pain after taking NSAID then you may need to consult doctor who may suggest you according to level of pain.
• Using heating pad or a hot water bottle on the belly or by taking hot water bath may reduce the pain by improving the blood flow.
• Regular exercise may help in reducing the cramps as it improves blood flow level in body.
• Lie down according to your comfort by putting pillow beneath your knees which may help in reducing pain.
Menstrual symptoms are frequent among women of reproductive age. A variety of diagnostic venues and therapeutic approaches have been suggested in the literature to reduce the severity and duration of the symptoms. Among which menstrual cramps are general and natural changes that occur during every woman’s life, in order to overcome, should have their healthy diet, and regular exercise to overcome the serious symptoms so that they can have regular and safe period for healthy life. Make sure that there should not be any irregularity in the cycle, and if any severe levels of symptoms were observed one should be concern the gynecologist. But in case if a woman consistently suffers from several physical and emotional symptoms, it is suggested to refer to a professional for a diagnosis and treatment plan.
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