Department of Pharmacy and Biomolecular Sciences, Liverpool John Moores University, Liverpool L3 3AF, UK
Received: 09-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. JPPS-22-56778; Editor assigned: 12-Mar-2022, PreQC No. JPPS-22-56778 (PQ); Reviewed: 25-Mar-2022, QC No JPPS- 22- 56778; Revised: 30-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. JPPS-22-56778(R); Published: 06-Apr-2022, DOI: 10.2320-0189.11.2. 001
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Medicinal chemistry is a field that combines chemistry, particularly synthetic organic chemistry, with pharmacology and other biological disciplines to work on the design, chemical synthesis, and commercialization of pharmacological agents or bioactive compounds (drugs). Organic compounds are most commonly used as medicines, and they are divided into two categories: small organic molecules (e.g., atorvastatin, fluticasone, clopidogrel) and biologics (infliximab, erythropoietin, insulin glargine), the latter of which are mostly medicinal preparations of proteins (natural and recombinant antibodies, hormones etc.). Drugs can be made from both inorganic and organometallic substances (e.g., lithium and platinum-based agents such as lithium carbonate and cisplatin as well as gallium).
Medicinal chemistry, in its most common form—focusing on small organic molecules—includes synthetic organic chemistry, natural product aspects, and computational chemistry, all of which are used in tandem with chemical biology, enzymology, and structural biology to discover and develop new therapeutic agents. In practise, it entails identifying chemical characteristics of novel chemical entities, followed by systematic, complete synthetic change of new chemical entities to make them acceptable for therapeutic application. It encompasses the synthetic and computational components of studying existing medications and agents under development in respect to their bioactivities (biological activities and qualities), i.e., comprehending Structure–Activity Correlations (SAR). Pharmaceutical chemistry is concerned with the quality of medicines and aims to ensure that they are fit for their intended use. Medicinal chemistry combines with biological areas such as biochemistry, molecular biology, pharmacognosy and pharmacology, toxicology, and veterinary and human medicine to form a set of highly interdisciplinary sciences at the biological interface. These, along with project management, statistics, and pharmaceutical business practises, systematically oversee altering identified chemical agents such that after phasing out.
Discovery is the process of finding new active chemical compounds, also known as "hits," through the testing of molecules for a desired biological activity. Initial hits can come from repurposing existing drugs to target novel pathologic processes, as well as studies of biologic effects of new or current natural products derived from bacteria, fungi, plants, and other sources. Hits are also frequently derived from structural observations of small molecule "fragments" bound to therapeutic targets (enzymes, receptors, and so on), with the fragments serving as starting points for synthesis of more chemically complex forms. Finally, hits are frequently found in en-masse testing of chemical compounds against biological targets using biochemical or chemo proteomics assays, where the compounds may come from new synthetic chemical libraries with specific properties (kinase inhibitory activity, diversity, or drug-likeness, for example), or from historic chemical compound collections or libraries created through combinatorial chemistry. While there are a variety of methodologies to finding and developing hits, the most successful techniques are based on chemical and biological intuition developed in teams over years of rigorous practise dedicated entirely at discovering new therapeutic molecules.
Medicinal chemistry is an interdisciplinary subject by definition, and practitioners must have a strong background in organic chemistry, as well as a thorough understanding of biology ideas linked to cellular drug targets. Medicinal chemistry scientists are primarily industrial scientists (but see below), who work as part of an interdisciplinary team that employs their chemistry skills, particularly their synthetic skills, to design effective therapeutic agents based on chemical principles. Practitioners are frequently required to complete a 4-year bachelor's degree followed by a 4-6-year Ph.D. programme. Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry that deals with organic compounds. After completing a Ph.D. in chemistry, most training programmes include a 2-year postdoctoral fellowship, bringing the overall length of training to 10 to 12 years of college study. However, there are job opportunities in the pharmaceutical business at the Master's level, and there are also job chances in academia and government at the Master's and Ph.D. levels. A PharmD is earned by many medicinal chemists, especially those in academia and research (doctor of pharmacy). RPhs are among the PharmD/PhD researchers (Registered Pharmacists).
Medicinal chemistry graduate programmes can be found in traditional medicinal chemistry or pharmaceutical sciences departments, both of which are typically linked with schools of pharmacy, as well as in some chemistry departments. However, rather than medicinal chemistry, the majority of professional medicinal chemists have graduate degrees (MS, but mainly Ph.D.) in organic chemistry, and the bulk of roles are in discovery, where the net must be thrown widest and the most widespread synthetic activity happens.
An emphasis on training that provides for a range of synthetic experience and "speed" of bench operations is obviously present in the development of small molecule medicines (e.g., for individuals with pure synthetic organic and natural products synthesis in Ph.D. and post-doctoral positions, ibid.). Training routes are sometimes significantly more diversified in medicinal chemistry speciality areas involved with the design and synthesis of chemical libraries or the execution of process chemistry aimed at viable commercial syntheses (areas with less opportunities) (e.g., including focused training in physical organic chemistry, library-related syntheses, etc.).