A Review on Sleep Health and Sleep Disorders
Department of Pharmacy, SSJ College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Prashanthi G
Department of Pharmacy, SSJ College of Pharmacy
Vattinagulapally, Rajendranagar mandal, Hyderabad
Telangana 500075, India.
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: 12/12/2016 Accepted date: 25/12/2016 Published date: 31/12/2016
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Medical and Health Sciences
Sleep Health is a new field of research describing how we sleep and the factors that affect it, which in turn is beneficial to our physical and mental health. On an average individual should ideally receive sleep between seven and nine hours each night, which vary individually, like some feel best with eight hours of sleep, while others fell the same with six to seven hours at night. Healthy sleep habits will help in living quality life; it might appear obvious that sleep is beneficial and essential. Indeed, even without completely knowing what sleep does for us. Researchers have made to great attempts in understanding the benefits of sleep completely, where they have discovered the importance of sleep in humans and animal metabolism, immune system, memory, learning and other crucial activities. The features in this review article explained about the importance of sleep, stages of sleep and sleep disorders along with the present and future perspectives in treatment.
Sleep, Sleep health, Sleep disorders, Sleep stages.
Sleep study is one of the most interesting subjects since the early Greek philosophers’ period. At present researchers introduced excellent ways to study sleep in a particular and systemic way with the help of new technologies like electroencephalograph (EEG). EEG has made scientists work easy by aiding in measuring the electrical patterns and activity of brain during sleep [1-5].
As per available recent reports about 70 journals, 90 Conferences, 30 workshops are exclusively related to Sleep Disorder. There is an enormous increase in cases of Sleep Disorder because of ignorance of people in identifying and reporting the condition. As per the reports of National Institutes of Health about 12 million Americans were suffering with OSA [5-9]. Some of the sleep disorders are critical and interfere with mental, social and emotional functioning. Polysomnography is a test which is commonly used for identifying some sleep disorders. The Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy Presents a unique platform to researchers and scientist to explore the developed and cutting-edge study trends in the field of Sleep problems and treatment [10-16].
American Sleep Association was established in 2002 by sleep professionals with an aim to improve and strengthen public health by growing awareness regarding the importance of sleep and the problems of sleep disorders and secondary goal is to help other such organizations that share our goal. It believes that everyone in this community can make an optimistic impact on this effort. The British Sleep Society is an organisation for scientific, medical and healthcare professionals coping with sleeping disorders. They are a registered British charity with an ultimate goal of improving public health via promoting research and education of sleep and its disorders. The Canadian Sleep Society is an organization with an ideal commitment of improving sleep health of all Canadians by supporting the research, promoting high quality clinical care, making the professionals and the public to know about problems and dangers of sleep disorders [17-21]. The European Society for the Advance of the Neuroscience is a national non-profit organization founded in 2013 with an ultimate aim to promote the research of the Scientists worldwide. This organization works with a mission to improve the advance technology in understanding the brain and the nervous system along with the diagnosis of diseases by gathering Young researchers of different backgrounds, and making way to publish their innovative research [22-28].
OMICS Group organizes conferences on sleep with an aim to make an everlasting relation of upcoming new strategies in the field of Sleep Disorders with the scientific community and thereby giving everyone a healthier and quality life. Recently 2nd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine which is known as Sleep Medicine 2016 was a grand success and on November 28th -30th, 2016 at Atlanta [29-31]. The main theme of this conference is to illuminate the topic of sleep, how it benefits our daily lives and ultimately leading to a healthier and prosperous tomorrow. Kathy Sexton-Radek et al. discussed that the alternative medicine use to induce sleep has high impact on reducing the difficulties in sleep as well as to reduce the chances of sleep disorder cases globally also another study by Zi-Jian Cai suggests that the slow-wave sleep (SWS) for regulating the emotional balance obstructed by emotional memories were randomly accumulated during waking and the REM sleep is contrary to it, which helps in revising and extending the psychoanalysis in both therapy and theory. 3rd International Conference on Sleep Disorders and Medicine is going to held on November 5-7, 2017, Madrid, Spain. The main intention is to promote the new developments and innovative ideas in exploring the knowledge by scientific researchers on Sleep disorders and Medicine to the community [33-36].
Our brain regulates and controls the transitional stages between wakefulness and sleep which in turn plays a vital role in indicating depth and quantity of sleep. Sleep is also highly influenced by external environmental factors like light. Scientists are about to establish a clear concept of sleep. Normally we pass through five sleep stages and one complete sleep cycle involves an average time of 90 to 110 minutes. Polysomnography is used to measure the stages of sleep which is involves measuring of sleep patterns, brain wave activity, eye movement, respiration and heart rhythm. The two important categories of sleep are rapid eye movement sleep (REM) and non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM), which are scientifically referred to as active and quite sleep respectively. REM sleep is again divided in to four separate stages [37-39].
REM sleep involves rapid movements of the closed eye which can be measured using electrooculography (EOG), activity of brain during sleep consists of low-amplitude brain waves, brains oxygen and energy consumption is high during this stage, neurologically REM sleep is accelerated by the neurotransmitter acetylcholine and suppressed by serotonin. There will be irregular and rapid breathing along with high blood pressure in REM sleep compared to Non-REM sleep. Muscles will be in relaxed condition during non-REM sleep while they are completely paralysed and unresponsive during REM sleep which is termed as atonia which is result of brains suppression of control muscle movement. Most of the vivid dreams we come across sleep are during REM sleep due to muscular atonia [40-44].
Stage 1 involves short sleep where one drift in and out of sleep also they can be awakened quickly and easily. At this stage of sleep, the movement of eyes is slow and muscle activity is decreased. In this stage, many individuals can experience muscle contractions continued by a sense of falling [45-47].
In stage 2 movements of eye stops and slower brain waves activity with an occasional sudden burst of continuous brain waves. When an individual enters stage 3 there will be slow brain waves known as delta waves which will interspersed with faster and smaller waves [48-54].
In stage 4 our brain produces delta waves only. Stages 3 and 4 are considered as delta sleep or deep sleep and rather complex to wake any individual from this stage. In deep sleep there will be no movement of eye or muscle activity. This is the stage where children experience bedwetting, night terrors and sleepwalking [55-58].
A sleep disorder or somnipathy is characterized by sleep pattern alterations in an individual or animal and most of them involved in producing disruption in sleep functions. This Disruption of sleep may be caused by a different factors and conditions which are serious enough in causing difficulties in normal physical and mental health. You can start monitoring your signs and sleep patterns, and that making change in health habits starting form morning to night bedtime. If that doesn’t work you could turn to sleep professionals who're trained in sleep treatment and thereby find the exact ways to improve your sleep health and quality of life [59-64].
Sleep disorders are classified into circadian rhythm sleep disorders which involves the time of sleep, parasomnias, dyssomnias, sleeping sickness. Some of the common sleep disorders are Obstructive sleep apnea that involves difficulty in breathing during sleep, narcolepsy which is characterized by over daytime sleepiness and drowsiness often with sudden onsets of sleep anywhere which makes the patient difficult to stay awake for long time. Hypersomnia involves excessive drowsiness at odd times. Cataplexy is sudden loss of muscle tone after waking up from sleep [64-72]. Other sleep disorders are parasomnia, sleep paralysis, snoring, night terrors, delayed sleep phase disorder, bruxism, bed wetting, shift work sleep disorder, restless legs syndrome, kleine-levin syndrome and sleepwalking [73-84].
Open Access Journals related to sleep disorders play major role in promoting the research and recent advances in almost all areas of Neuroscience and sleep studies for benefit of society. Some remarkable research findings and reviews have been published in Journal of Sleep Disorders: Treatment and Care, it is a peer reviewed journal that publishes the most reliable source of content and information on the latest discoveries and current interventions in sleep studies [85-92]. Journal of Sleep Disorders & Therapy is an open access peer reviewed journal which provides a platform to share the information among the scientists and researchers, also Open Access methods have been resembled the most effective tool for dissemination of information for the betterment of the scientific society.
This review discussed an overview of sleep and their disorders. Most of the sleep problems and sleep disorders if once diagnosed or identifies it can be easily managed with help of sleep specialist [93-98]. The starting goal is to identify and treat every condition which may be responsible secondarily for daytime or excessive sleepiness or inability to have sufficient quality sleep. However, treatment of sleep disorders is best handled by a sleep expert [99-100].
- Cai ZJ. Extending psychoanalysis with theories on sleep functions. J Sleep DisordTher. 2015;4:217.
- Zaki NWF, et al. Sleep medicine knowledge among medical students in seven egyptian medical faculties. J Sleep DisordTher. 2016;5:239.
- Minkoff K. Sleep: A progressive field. J Sleep DisordTher. 2015;5:e135.
- Killgore WDS. Lighting the way to better sleep and health. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;5:1.
- Ibrahim MA, et al. Sleep pattern in primary enuretic children. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:2.
- Cone L, et al. The effect of healing touch on sleep patterns of pediatric burn patients: A prospective pilot study. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:2.
- Goldman SE, et al. Concordance of mother/child sleep patterns using actigraphy: Preliminary findings. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:2.
- Msaad S, et al. Influence of ramadan observance on sleep pattern and wakefulness at work among medical trainer in Tunisia. J Sleep DisordTher. 2016;5:243.
- Strober LB and Arnett PA. Sleep changes in multiple sclerosis: From the individualÃ¢ÂÂs perspective. j sleep disor: treat care. 2013;2:4.
- Xi-Jian D, et al. Different cerebellar responding to acupuncture at sp6 under different sleep states: An FMRI study. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:2.
- Timchenko A, et al. Midnight siesta and circadian rhythms of related metabolic and behavioral variables in aging mice. J Vet Sci Med Diagn. 2014;3:3.
- Prado LBF, et al. Sleep in individuals sharing their sleep environment with dogs: Pilot study. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:3.
- Orff HJ, et al. Sleep disturbance, psychiatric, and cognitive functioning in veterans with mild to moderate traumatic brain injury. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:2.
- MacKay Stuart and Holmes SueEllen. Heavy issue: Clarifying AHI elevation after contemporary airway surgery for OSA-the MACHO graph. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:1.
- Oberg C, et al. Effects of sleep deprivation on exhaled nitric oxide concentrations in medical residents taking night call. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:4.
- MacKay S, et al. Benefit of a contemporary sleep multidisciplinary team (mdt): Patient and clinician evaluation. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:2.
- Batchelor FA, et al. Subjective and objective sleep measures in older people with a history of falls. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:1.
- Preer L, et al. Personality traits associated with sleep initiation problems. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:4.
- Hylkema T and Vlaskamp C. Improving sleep in a person with down syndrome and alzheimerÃ¢ÂÂs disease. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:4.
- Milano F, et al. Combined treatment of a severe osas patient planned after a sleep endoscopy performed with and without a mandibular protrusion simulator. A case report. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:4.
- Chapman B, et al. Motivational measurements predict no show rates for titration studies and use of alternative therapies. A case report. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:4.
- Putilov AA. Patterns of association of health problems with sleep-wake timing and duration. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:4.
- Blunden S, et al. Development of a short version of the dysfunctional beliefs about sleep questionnaire for use with children (DBAS-C10). J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:3.
- Afsar B. Sleep deprivation: A forgotten risk factor for renal dysfunction in healthy individuals. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:2.
- Rouatbi S, et al. The six minute-walk test is-it the most effective way to follow an overlap syndrome? J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:1.
- Moran AM, Everhart DE (2012) Adolescent sleep: review of characteristics, consequences and intervention. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care 1:2.
- Demir AB, et al. Togetherness of rem behavior disorder and fahr disease: A case report. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2012;1:2.
- Pincherle A, et al. Brainstem sparing in human prion disease: sleep and autonomic function in a long survival case report. J Sleep DisordTher. 2016;5:236.
- Pucci SHM and Pereira MG. Sleep quality in adolescents: what's discriminates good from poor sleepers? J Sleep DisordTher. 2016;5:237.
- Geerdink M, et al. Short blue light pulses (30 min.) in the morning are able to phase advance the rhythm of melatonin in a home setting. J Sleep DisordTher. 2016;5:242.
- Giunta J, et al. Sleep disorders and cardio-renal disease: implications for minority populations. Epidemiology (Sunnyvale). 2016;6:e120.
- Christina D, et al. Stress management for the treatment of sleep disorders in lawyers: Pilot experimental study in athens, hellas. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:2.
- Eurelings-Bontekoe EHM, et al. The impact of level of personality organization and somatization on psychological distress, worrying and coping among patients with sleep disorders. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:3.
- CC (JJ) Chen and SDR Ringenbach. The association between sleep disorders and fine manual dexterity in adolescent and young adults with down syndrome. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:2.
- Tan M, et al. Positive airway pressure therapy for sleep disordered breathing in congestive heart failure is associated with reduction in pulmonary artery systolic pressure. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:2.
- Sharma S and Mather P. Detection of sleep disordered breathing in patients hospitalized with congestive heart failure. J Sleep DisordTher. 2015;4:e133.
- Nishijima T, et al. Effect of sleep-disordered breathing on academic achievement in medical students. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:4.
- Alajmi M, et al. Positive airway pressure levels for children with sleep disordered breathing. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:1.
- Islam MM, et al. Opioid induced sleep disordered breathing in sickle cell patient. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2012;1:1.
- Sorscher AJ, et al. Pharmacotherapy for chronic insomnia: a brief survey of pcp attitudes and preferences. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:1.
- Jong M, et al. Feasibility and effects of touch massage and nurse led sleep counselling in the treatment of primary insomnia. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:1.
- Barreto LA, et al. Psychosocial features of Brazilian patients with paradoxical insomnia: A qualitative study. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:3.
- Grau-LÃÂ³pez L, et al. Factors related to relapse in substance-dependent patients in hospital detoxification: The relevance of insomnia. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:3.
- Vitulano N, et al. Should every patient with heart failure be investigated for sleep apnea syndrome?Int J Cardiovasc Res. 2015;4:1.
- Krakow B, et al. Adaptive servo-ventilation therapy in a case series of patients with co-morbid insomnia and sleep apnea. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:1.
- Vakulin A, et al. Driving impairment and accident risk in sleep apnea: We need better assessment tools. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2012;1:1.
- Duong-Quy S, et al. Prevalence and characteristic of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome in subjects with high blood pressure: A pilot study in vietnam. J Vasc Med Surg. 2016;4:273.
- Ogna A and Ogna VF. Increasing incidence of obstructive sleep apnea and chronic kidney disease: Is there a causal relationship? J Sleep DisordTher. 2016;5:245.
- Miyata S, et al. Masked hypertension and morning blood pressure surge in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:1.
- Bruyneel M, et al. Sleep duration is increased but not physical activity in somnolent moderate to severe obstructive sleep apnea patients treated by continuous positive airway pressure. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:4.
- Shuo Li, et al. Prevalence of insomnia in patients with obstructive sleep apnea and management of this comorbidity. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:4.
- Rutagarama O, et al. Risk of common mental disorders in relation to symptoms of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome among Ethiopian college students. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:3.
- Kasai M, et al. Nasal surgery improves continuous positive airway pressure compliance and daytime sleepiness in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J OtolRhinol. 2015;S1:1.
- Pinyopornpanish P, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea during pregnancy and the morbidity outcome. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:2.
- Sendon CS, et al. Adaptive servo ventilation to treat an infant with both central and obstructive sleep apnea. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:2.
- Davies SE, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea is associated with increased frequency of nocturnal cardiac arrhythmias. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:2.
- Nikolova M, et al. Development of modified questionnaire for screening purposes for obstructive sleep apnea in pediatric population. J OtolRhinol. 2015;4:3.
- Peng KA, et al. Management of obstructive sleep apnea following endoscopic skull base surgery. J OtolRhinol. 2014;3:5.
- Adriana N, et al. Correlations between quality of life, the degree of apnea and diseases associated pathology in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. J OtolRhinol. 2014;3:5.
- Sadeghniiat-Haghighi K, et al. The berlin questionnaire: Performance of the persian version for measuring obstructive sleep apnea in sleep clinic population. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;4:3.
- DÃÂ©ry V, et al. Increased risk of serious post-operative cardiopulmonary complications in undiagnosed severe obstructive sleep apnea. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:3.
- Chirakalwasan N, et al. The importance of habitual sleep position in obstructive sleep apnea among Asians. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:2.
- Boynton G, et al. Validation of the stop-bang questionnaire among patients referred for suspected obstructive sleep apnea. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:4.
- Ying Lau EY, et al. Neurocognitive and psychosocial outcomes of obstructive sleep apnea in Hong Kong Chinese: Similar to or different from western populations? J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:3.
- Maury G, et al. Added value of a mandible movement automated analysis in the screening of obstructive sleep apnea: Is there a gender influence? J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:3.
- Shah N, et al. Obstructive sleep apnea in the acute myocardial infarction setting - should i treat my patient? J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:1.
- Kumar AR, et al. Quantitative assessment of an obstructive sleep apnea patient before and after tracheostomy: A case study. J OtolRhinol. 2013;2:2.
- Sharma S, et al. Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery (cabg). A pilot study. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2012;1:2.
- Lowe ASW, et al. The effect of lifestyle interventions on obstructive sleep apnoea and the metabolic syndrome: A systematic review. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:3.
- Akintunde AA and Opadijo OG. Clustering of metabolic syndrome and obstructive sleep apnoea - syndrome z among adult Nigerians with systemic hypertension: Prevalence and clinical correlates. Int J Cardiovasc Res. 2012;1:5.
- Mahmoudi M, et al. Narcolepsy-characteristics of those in the borderland-we need a better diagnostic tool. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:1.
- Backman H, et al. Severe sleep problems and psychopathic features: A study of finnish adolescents. J Child AdolescBehav. 2016;4:301.
- Arnold EM, et al. Sleep problems, suicidality and depression among American Indian youth. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:3.
- Blunden S and Baills A. Treatment of behavioural sleep problems: Asking the parents. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:2.
- Barone DA, et al. Improvement of sleepiness in connective tissue disorders following h1/h2 blockade. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:1.
- Robinson D, et al. Daytime sleepiness, circadian preference, caffeine consumption and khat use among college students in Ethiopia. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:1.
- dosPassos TES, et al. Quality of sleep and daytime sleepiness among university students. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:2.
- Roberts J, et al. Modified OSLER-2 (Oxford Sleep Resistance) test to assess the measurement of daytime sleepiness. J Sleep DisordTher. 2015;4:i106.
- Ayodele SO, et al. Rhinopharyngeal predictors of snoring among adult African patients. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2013;2:4.
- Fiz JA and Jane R. Snoring analysis. A complex question. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2012;1:1.
- Killgore WDS. Sleepless nights and bulging waistlines. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2012;1:1.
- Cary D, et al. Examining the relationship between sleep posture and morning spinal symptoms in the habitual environment using infrared cameras. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:2.
- Bingeliene A, et al. Case report: Disturbed sleep in a patient with moyamoya disease. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:4.
- Seidler N. General anesthesia and sleep. J AnesthClin Res. 2016;7:e116.
- Neutel CI and Johansen HL. Patterns in analgesic and hypnotic use during the last year of life. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:2.
- Urabe MMSNRN and Urabe SMD. Influence of teeth to sleep disturbance and behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia of the patients with dementia at psychiatric hospitals in japan, and the target of non-pharmacologic intervention. AnalgResusc: Curr Res. 2015;4:2.
- Inoshita A, et al. Postoperative nasal packing might contribute to nocturnal desaturation for patients with low body mass index or low nasal resistance. J OtolRhinol. 2015;S1:1.
- Nodine PM, et al. The impact of physical activity on sleep during pregnancy: A secondary analysis. Clinics Mother Child Health. 2016;13: 245.
- Zubair UB, et al. Assessment of quality of sleep in pregnancy and socio demographic factors associated with poor sleep quality in pregnancy. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2016;5:2.
- Madsen MT, et al. Actigraphy can be used to quantify sleep in the perioperative period in women undergoing breast cancer surgery: A validation study. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:4.
- Koga A, et al. Association between sleep duration and personality-gene variants: Sleep duration is longer in s/s homozygotes of serotonin transporter than in l allele genotypes. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:2.
- Madsen MT, et al. Actigraphy can be used to quantify sleep in the perioperative period in women undergoing breast cancer surgery: A validation study. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:4.
- AraÃÂºjo DV, et al. Evaluation of sleep quality in patients with breast cancer. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2014;3:4.
- Broderick JE, et al. Self-Report somatic arousal correlates with sleep complaints among females with irritable bowel syndrome: A pilot study. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2012;1:2.
- Volgin DV. Dissecting Role of sleep in abnormal neurocognitive development in an animal model of prenatal alcohol exposure. J Vet Sci Med Diagn. 2012;1:1.
- Fois C, et al. Case Report: idiopathic recurrent stupor, still an unsolved issue. J Sleep Disor:Treat Care. 2015;4:4.
- Marcussen L, et al. Effects of mandibular advancement devices on sleep, blood pressure and jaw functions in patients with or without diabetes. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:3.
- Scherer M, et al. The relationship between sleep, depression, and traumatic brain injury: A study of Ontario workers with head trauma. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:1.
- Madsen MT, et al. Effects of melatonin on sleep after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: A randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:1.
- Speth TA, et al. Sleep parameters and architecture in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: A comparison with typically developing peers and across subtypes. J Sleep Disor: Treat Care. 2015;4:1.