Addiction: Current Updates
Kiran Mayee K*
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance, Osmania University, Telangana, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Kiran Mayee K
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis and Quality Assurance
Osmania University, Telangana, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: 02/02/2017 Accepted date: 23/02/2017 Published date: 28/02/2017
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Addiction is a disorder of the brain's reward system which arises through transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms and arises over time from chronically high levels of coverage to an addictive stimulus (e.g., morphine, cocaine, sexual intercourse, gambling, etc.). Most drugs affect the brain's "reward circuit" by inundating it with the chemical messenger dopamine. This reward system controls the body's capability to feel pleasure and motivates a person to repeat behaviors needed to thrive, such as eating and spending time with loved ones. This overstimulation of the reward circuit causes the extremely pleasurable "high" that can lead people to take a drug again and again.
Addiction, Drug sensitization, Drug withdrawal, Physical dependence, Psychological dependence, Substance use disorder
Addiction is a disorder of the brain's reward system which arises through transcriptional and epigenetic mechanisms and arises over time from chronically high levels of coverage to an addictive stimulus (e.g., morphine, cocaine, sexual intercourse, gambling, etc.).
Most drugs affect the brain's "reward circuit" by inundating it with the chemical messenger dopamine. This reward system controls the body's capability to feel pleasure and motivates a person to repeat behaviors needed to thrive, such as eating and spending time with loved ones. This overstimulation of the reward circuit causes the extremely pleasurable "high" that can lead people to take a drug again and again [1-10].
Open access journals offer more prominence and approachability to the bibliophiles in gaining the required information. The ongoing researches all over the world, which are being revealed through open access journals, serve as the main source of information in numerous fields [11-15].
To enlighten quality research among the people, entity of physicians and research fellows bond to form a society or an organization. Major societies like The American Society of Addiction Medicine dedicated to increasing access and improving the quality of addiction treatment, educating physicians and the public, supporting research and prevention, and promoting the appropriate role of physicians in the care of patients with addiction [16-20]. The International Society of Addiction Medicine targets:
ÃÂ¯ÃâÃÂ· Development of knowledge about Addiction seen as a treatable disease
ÃÂ¯ÃâÃÂ· Acknowledgment that physicians worldwide have a major role to play in its management
ÃÂ¯ÃâÃÂ· Enrichment of the credibility of the physician’s role
ÃÂ¯ÃâÃÂ· Prominence of the importance of educational activities
American Academy of Addiction Psychiatry promotes evidence-based screening, valuation and management for substance use disorders and co-occurring mental disorders [21-25]. Society of Addiction Psychology endorses developments in research, professional teaching, and clinical practice within the extensive range of addictive behaviors including problematic use of alcohol, nicotine and other drugs and disorders involving gambling, eating, sexual behavior or spending [26-30].
Open Access literature plays a major role in demonstrating the information and modern researches across the earth. Neuropsychiatry (London) provides vital research on the advancements & clinical cases in the fields of Neurology & Psychiatry studies. Addictive Behaviors, Therapy & Rehabilitation is a global peer-reviewed academic journal, which circulated the papers across the world in the arenas of Addiction & Rehabilitation all over its Volume till date [31-40].
Journal of Addiction Research & Therapy covers the basic knowledge and provides cutting-edge research approaches in the expansion of updated addition research [41-45]. Journal of Depression and Anxiety is a leading provider of information on addiction studies and novel methods of treatment followed. The above mentioned Open access journals on Addiction are the peer-reviewed journals that preserve the importance of the journal content, reviewer’s accord and respective editor’s authorization in order to publish an article. These journals confirms the barrier-free circulation of its content through online open access and thus benefits in improving the citations for authors and accomplishing respectable journal impact factors [46-52].
Most Prevalent Addictions Across the Globe
The most common addictions include Food Addiction, drug Addiction (Cannabinoid, Nicotine, Opioid), sexual addiction, gambling addiction, video game addiction and shopping addiction, Internet addiction, etc. According to 2016 statistics, about 22 million Americans require treatment for an addiction to drugs [53-60]. One-third of inpatient hospital costs and 20% of all deaths in the US every year are the outcome of untreated addictions and risky substance use. In spite of the enormous complete economic cost to society, which is larger than the cost of diabetes and all forms of cancer pooled, most doctors in the US lack the training to effectively address a drug addiction? [61-65].
Drug Addiction or substance use disorder, is a dependency on a legal or illegal drug or medication. Open access healthcare entity works to deliver information of innovative research in the addiction research [66-70]. Glance on few articles provide basic knowledge on Addiction studies. Article titled Reduction of harmful consumption versus total abstinence in addiction treatment written by Michael Musalek, explains drug consumption-oriented treatment goals, and, in particular, abstinence-oriented treatment goals, remain the treatment of choice in the field of addiction treatment research [71-76]. Other article on Drug addiction Buprenorphine for opioid addiction by Walter Ling, Larissa Mooney, Matthew Torrington provides the knowledge on Buprenorphine & its research. Buprenorphine is a partial opioid agonist at the m receptor and is used as a daily-dose sublingual tablet or filmstrip for managing opioid addiction. Recent article on treatment of Drug addiction include Ibudilast for the treatment of drug addiction and other neurological conditions, by Kirk W Johnson, Kazuko Matsuda & Yuichi Iwaki [77-80].
Internet addiction disorder, more generally called problematic Internet use (PIU), refers to extreme Internet use that interferes with daily life. In a manuscript entitled Internet addiction update: diagnostic criteria, assessment and prevalence authored by Roberto Poli provides review the internet addiction research with regard to diagnostic criteria, tools for assessment and prevalence in general adult population [81,82].
Apart from the articles, presentation at conferences, symposiums, workshops provides improved exposure to health information and innovative technologies that are being invented in the present generation. 5th International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy held at Atlanta, USA presented the Unifying the new discoveries and advanced approaches toward Addiction. The conference highlights included Addiction treatment and rehabilitation, Drug addiction and neurotoxicology, Alcoholism and Substance Abuse, Addictions and addictives, Advanced Research Techniques in Addiction Treatment, etc [83-87].
Other Conferences in 2017 with more perspectives in Addiction research are:
8th International Conference and Exhibition on Addiction Research & Therapy which is going to be held during November 13-15, 2017 in Las Vegas, USA, 7th International Conference on Addictive Disorders and Alcoholism during July 03-04, 2017 at Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, "6th World Congress on Addiction Disorder and Addiction Therapy" which is going to be held during August 29-31, 2017 in Prague, Czech republic, etc [88-90].
Novel Addiction Trestment Research
Types of Addiction Therapy
Drug therapy (For opioid addiction, for tobacco addiction, for alcoholism, for video gaming addiction).
Psychotherapy (Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), Dialectical Behavioral Therapy (DBT), Motivational Interviewing, Group Therapy, Family & Couples Therapy).
Other Treatment Options (Adventure therapy, Art therapy, Equine therapy, Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR), Motivational incentives, Recreational therapy, Wilderness therapy).
Research by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), National Institute of Drug Abuse (NIDA) and National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) shows that comprehensive, integrated care significantly increases long-term recovery and quality of life success rates. Therefore, medical and psychiatric assessments and supplements are offered throughout the management stay [91-100].
Addiction disorder is most prominent and prevalent in USA. Many innovative treatment modes have been developed to reduce the disturbance in life style & mortality due to addiction [101,102]. Overall this information can be viewed in open access research literature which reveals the new techniques and innovative researches taking place in the research field. Many professionals share their views; suggestions through the open access literature which can be accessed by all in order attain knowledge on addiction.
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