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Anxiety: A Discussion on Panic Disorder and Specific Phobias

Eleonore Bradtke*

Department of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas, Sau Paulo, Brazil

*Corresponding Author:
Eleonore Bradtke
Department of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas, Sau Paulo, Brazil

Received: 10-Nov-2023, Manuscript No. JCMCS -23-122491; Editor assigned: 14-Nov-2023, Pre QC No. JCMCS -23-122491(PQ); Reviewed: 28-Nov-2023, QC No. JCMCS -23-122491; Revised: 05-Dec-2023, Manuscript No. JCMCS -23-122491(R); Published: 12-Dec-2023, DOI: 10.4172/J Clin Med Case Stud.8.4.001.

Citation: Bradtke E. Anxiety: A Discussion on Panic Disorder and Specific Phobias. J Clin Med Case Stud. 2023;8:001.

Copyright: © 2023 Bradtke E. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Anxiety disorders are a group of mental disorders characterized by significant and uncontrollable feelings of anxiety and fear that significantly impair a person's social, occupational, and personal functions. Anxiety may cause physical and cognitive symptoms such as restlessness, irritability, easy fatigue, difficulty concentrating, increased heart rate, chest pain, abdominal pain, and a variety of other symptoms that may vary depending on the individual. The terms anxiety and fear are frequently used interchangeably in In clinical utilization, they have unmistakable implications; tension is clinically characterized as an unsavoury close to home state for which the reason is either not promptly distinguished or seen to be wild or inescapable, though dread is clinically characterized as a profound and physiological reaction to a perceived outside threat. The umbrella term 'uneasiness jumble' alludes to various explicit problems that incorporate feelings of trepidation (fears) as well as nervousness symptoms.

There are a few kinds of uneasiness problems, including summed up tension confusion, hypochondriasis, explicit fear, social nervousness problem, fear of abandonment, agoraphobia, alarm jumble, and particular mutism. Individual issues can be analysed utilizing the particular and exceptional side effects, setting off occasions, and timing of a given person. A clinical expert should assess an individual prior to diagnosing them with a tension issue to guarantee that their tension can't be credited to another clinical disease or mental disorder. It is workable for a person to have more than one uneasiness issue during their life or to have more than one uneasiness problem at the equivalent time.

Tension issues are the most well-known sort of mental problem. They influence almost 30% of grown-ups eventually in their lives. In any case, uneasiness issues are treatable, and various viable medicines are accessible. With treatment, most people are able to live normal, productive lives.

Generalized anxiety disorder

Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD) is a general disorder characterized by prolonged anxiety that is not directed at any object or situation. People with generalized anxiety disorder experience nonspecific constant fear and worry and worry excessively about everyday things. Generalized anxiety disorder is and quot; characterized by chronic excessive worry with at least three of the following symptoms: Restlessness, fatigue, difficulty concentrating, irritability, muscle tension, and sleep disturbances, and quot; Generalized anxiety disorder is the most common anxiety disorder in older adults. Anxiety can be a symptom of a medical or substance abuse problem, and medical professionals should be aware of this. GAD is diagnosed when a person worries excessively about some daily problem for at least six months. These stresses may include family life, work, social life or personal health. A person may find that they have difficulty making daily decisions and remembering responsibilities due to a lack of concentration and/or restlessness. Symptoms may include a tense appearance, increased sweating of the hands, feet, and armpits, and tearfulness, which may indicate depression. Before diagnosing anxiety, doctors must rule out medication-induced anxiety and other medical causes.

In children, GAD may be associated with headaches, restlessness, abdominal pain, and palpitations. It usually starts around eight to nine years of age.

Specific phobias

The most common type of anxiety disorder is known as specific phobia, and it encompasses any situation or stimulus that causes fear or anxiety. The National Institute of Mental Health defines a phobia as an intense fear of or aversion to specific objects or situations. People who have a phobia typically anticipate terrifying consequences from encountering the object of their fear, which can be anything from an animal to a location to a bodily fluid to a specific situation. Between 5% and 12% of the population worldwide suffers from specific phobias. Normal fears are flying, blood, water, expressway driving, and passages. People with specific phobias frequently go to great lengths to avoid encountering their phobia, which can result in trembling, shortness of breath, or rapid heartbeat. Individuals with explicit fears comprehend that their apprehension isn't corresponding to the real possible risk, yet they can in any case become overpowered by it.

Panic disorder

In panic disorder, a person has short, intense attacks of fear and terror, often accompanied by tremors, tremors, confusion, dizziness, or difficulty breathing. The APA defines these panic attacks as a feeling of fear or discomfort that occurs suddenly and peaks in less than ten minutes but can last several hours. An attack can be triggered by stress, irrational thoughts, general fear, fear of the unknown or even exercise. But sometimes the trigger is unclear and attacks can happen without warning. The trigger can be dodged to block the attack. This may mean avoiding places, people, behaviors or certain situations known to trigger a panic attack. However, not all attacks can be prevented. In addition to frequent and unexpected panic attacks, the diagnosis of panic disorder requires that said attacks have chronic consequences: Either worry about the attacks and possible consequences, persistent fear of future attacks, or significant changes in behavior related to attacks. As such, panic disorder sufferers have symptoms even outside of specific panic episodes. Often, normal changes in heart rate are observed, leading them to think that something is wrong with their heart or that they are having another panic attack. In some cases, heightened awareness (hypervigilance) of bodily functions occurs during panic attacks, where any perceived physiological change is interpreted as a potential life-threatening illness (ie, extreme hypochondria).


Anxiety disorders are pervasive mental health challenges that significantly impact individuals' daily lives. With distinct types such as Generalized Anxiety Disorder, Specific Phobias, and Panic Disorder, these conditions manifest in various ways, each requiring tailored approaches to diagnosis and treatment. The interchangeability of anxiety and fear in clinical language underscores the complexity of these disorders, emphasizing the need for precise evaluation.