Atherosclerosis: An Increased Risk for Cancer
Poona College of Pharmacy, Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune, Maharashtra, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Nikhila Vengala
M. Pharmacy, Poona College of Pharmacy
Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed University, Pune, Maharashtra, India.
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: 02/02/2017 Accepted date: 23/02/2017 Published date: 28/02/2017
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Medical and Health Sciences
Cardiovascular diseases especially atherosclerosis is the leading purpose of morbidity and mortality internationally due to thrombotic occlusion of a inclined plaque. Early assessment of atherosclerotic lesions is an important diagnostic tool so as to decrease the coronary artery blockage. Cell adhesion molecules like integrins and cadherin-catenins if altered results in plaque formation and thrombosis which in turn leads to invasion of tumour and metastasis. An imbalance in macrophage activation polarization with prevalence of M1 phenotype is observed because of the deposition of lipids in the adipose tissue. Toxic metabolites produced by cigarette smoking and extended fat intake are entangled in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and cancer. A hypothesis is made that atherosclerosis can be initiated with a damage or mutation of proliferative clone held to the concept of carcinogenesis. These modifications may additionally make a contribution to the improvement of atherosclerosis and most cancers.
Atherosclerosis, Macrophages, Cancer, Adipocytes, Carcinogenesis
Cardiovascular disease is the arch that could cause the risk of life worldwide. Atherosclerosis is a systemic blockade of artery characterized by on-going progression in acknowledgment to systemic accident factors and bounded pro-atherogenic stimuli that lead to myocardial infarction, rheumatoid arthritis and various other diseases [1-5].
Atherosclerosis is characterized by the degradation of lipids in the avenue bank and the aggression of anarchic cells, such as monocytes and lymphocytes. Hyperlipidemia is a above accident agency for the abortive development of atherosclerosis and it has been apparent to access the accident of myocardial ischemia and cardiac events. Patients with diabetes are at a college accident for developing atherosclerosis than non-diabetic capacity and accept added susceptibility for myocardial infarction, borderline avenue ache and stroke [6-12].
Risk Factors Of Atherosclerosis
âÃ¯Â¿Â½?¢High Cholesterol levels (LDL, VLDL, Chylomicrons)
âÃ¯Â¿Â½?¢Low HDL levels
âÃ¯Â¿Â½?¢Lack of physical activity
âÃ¯Â¿Â½?¢Angiotensin Converting Enzyme
âÃ¯Â¿Â½?¢Family and medical History [13,14].
In order to promote awareness among the people, physicians and research experts unite to form a society or an organization. The main aim of these societies is to counsel and bring awareness among the people suffering from cardiac disorders and cancer and also among healthy personnel [15-25]. Major societies like European Biotechnology Thematic Network Association (EBTNA)establish the industrial needs, to define course programed objectives, the course contents, the various professional profiles, to establish common criteria of evaluation, to favor the applicative use, the research and didactic integration and to promote continuous formation. Mongolian Society for Pediatric Cardiology main vision is to develop diagnosis and treatment of various cardiology disorders in children [26-38].
Open Access literature provides a source for the information and current researches worldwide. Journal of Cancer Science & Therapy includes research in the field of cancer and oncology. It provides information related to therapeutic strategies like cancer therapy, cancer sciences, advances in cancer treatment etc. Conferences like 14th Asia Pacific Oncologists Annual Meeting going to be held at Melbourne, Australia dated on November 20-22, 2017 with a theme of pathophysiology of cancer, various types of cancer, cancer diagnosis and innovations in cancer therapy [39-46]. Atherosclerosis: Open Access is an international peer-reviewed scholarly journal which publishes research articles on thematic topics of atherosclerosis, coronary artery diseases. An editor note by Tamer MA Mohamed entitled “Atherosclerosis-Open Access” illustrated the pathophysiology and severity of atherosclerosis [47-53].
Journal of Clinical & Experimental Cardiology highlights on current problems and risk factors associated with cardiovascular disorders like atherosclerosis and other diseases. The open access journals on cardiovascular disorders and cancer are the peer-reviewed journals that meet all the standards of the journal content, reviewer’s agreement and acceptance of respective editors in order to publish an article. These journals provides the unimpeded distribution of its content through online open access and thereby helps in improving the citations for authors and attaining good journal impact factors [54,55].
Macrophages Of Adipose Tissue
Adipose tissue turns into hypoxic in obesity and adipocyte mobile hypoxia may be a foundation for the proinflammatory response in weight problems. Hypoxia may additionally affect other cell components of adipose tissue together with macrophages: these cells are able to increasing their inflammatory response within the face of hypoxia and extra these days within the specific context of adipose tissue. The finding that macrophages are present round regions of hypoxic adipocytes in adipose tissue might also advise that tissue hypoxia could offer a method of macrophage recruitment. The expanded productions of monocyte chemo attractant protein-1and macrophage inhibitor aspect-1 were proposed as key determinants of macrophage infiltration and stronger inflammatory response [56-69].
The identity of fatty acids, LDL, oxidative LDL as endogenous ligands for peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) has supplied a unique method to study lipid homeostasis at the molecular level in better organisms. Adipocyte PPAR gamma activation through fatty acids, LDL, oxidative LDL is vital for lipid garage inside adipocytes gambling an vital position in lipid flux and efflux: in weight problems main lipid entering in the adipocyte cell leads to the inflammatory pathways by using the intracellular stresses such as endoplasmic reticulum pressure or excess of ROS production by using mitochondria with activation of signaling cascades JNK/IKK inducing lipolysis and adipocyte liberating fatty acids that spark off macrophages. Macrophages PPR gamma activation by fatty acids, LDL, oxidative LDL controls opportunity activation of macrophages in adipose tissue and is needed for maturation of rather activated macrophages; the PPAR gamma activation induces the expression of the adipocyte fatty acids binding protein gene in human monocytes additionally. Macrophage activated secretes proinflammatory cytokines consisting of TNF that may stimulate the TNF-R1 on adipocytes inducing NF-kB activation pathway in the adipocyte mobile [70-78].
Adipocyte PPAR gamma activation with the aid of fatty acids, LDL, oxidative LDL is also vital for lipid garage interior adipocytes so the adipocyte play an crucial role in lipid flux and efflux: in obesity the important lipid influx within the adipocyte mobile results in the adipocyte inflammatory pathways activation through the intracellular pressure such as endoplasmic reticulum strain or excess of reactive oxygen species production via mitochondria with activation of signaling cascades JNK/IKKI inducing lipolysis and adipocyte launch of fatty acids that activate macrophages [79-84].
Atherosclerosis and Cancer
In hyperlipidemia the increased release of loose fatty acids, tumor necrosis aspect alpha from adipose tissue alters polarization in M1 state of macrophages. Increased fasting levels of insulin within the plasma are normally also related to decreased stages of insulin growth factors like B2 inside the blood. This results in elevated bioavailability of insulin growth factor 1 [85-88]. In the target cells the insulin and IGF1 signal through the insulin receptor and IGF1 receptor that promotes cell proliferation and inhibits apoptosis: the consequences of those peptides might make a contribution to tumor genesis. Furthermore, adipose tissue produces the enzymes aromatases and 17 betahydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17b-HSD). 17b-HSD converts the biologically actives hormones into to the energetic hormones. Simultaneously obesity ends in hyper insulinaemia which causes a change inside the hepatic synthesis and circulating degrees of intercourse-hormone- binding globulin [86-91].
Macrophages play an outstanding function in the malignancy microenvironment. Tumor associated macrophages (TAMs) are termed macrophages in human microenvironments cancer and that they may be categorized into classical activated M1-like or as an alternative activated M2-like macrophages: in the tumor microenvironment TAMs play a role in tumor progression influencing angiogenesis, lymphoangiogenesis, boom, metastasis and immunosuppression. Adipose tissue macrophages (ATMs) are termed macrophages that infiltrate adipose tissue all through weight problems where there may be a phenotypic switch in M1 kind polarization [92-100].
Nowadays the hyperlink between obesity-related infection and hazard for atherosclerosis development is hooked up as inflammatory pathogenesis mechanism for arterial vessel wall. It has been observed a near association of hypoadiponectinemia with atherosclerosis and ischemic heart sickness and plasma adiponectin concentration with regards to severity of coronary atherosclerosis and cardiovascular danger elements in middle-aged men. Not handiest, the statement that human adipose adipose tissue macrophages show activation of most cancers-related pathway and that tumor associated macrophages may additionally play a role in tumor development, imply that focused on macrophages inside the tumor microenvironment can also provide greater efficacious novel remedies for future tumor management concerning chemotherapy resistance, repolarization of TAM or their therapeutic depletion. Additional studies of those elements may also increase knowledge of adipose tissue as an endocrine and regulatory organ.
- Malshe AG. Hydrogen ion/Proton Dynamics: A Possible Therapeutic Approach in Malignancy Treatment. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:1.
- Shin DG, et al. A Methylation Profile of Circulating Cell Free DNA for the Early Detection of Gastric Cancer and the Effects after Surgical Resection. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:1.
- Romeira D, et al. Tumor Infiltrating Lymphocytes and Axillary Lymph Node Positivity: A Systematic Review. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:2.
- Norollahi SE, et al. The Role of MicroRNAs in Cancer Progression. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:2.
- Kumar R, et al. Quantum Magnetic Resonance Therapy: Targeting Biophysical Cancer Vulnerabilities to Effectively Treat and Palliate. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:2.
- Parvathi MVS, et al. Micro RNA-142-5p Profile as a Predictor of Tumor Markers Regulation in Different Histological Grades of Human Breast Carcinoma. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:2.
- Xu Y, et al. Early Changes in 2D-Speckle-Tracking Echocardiography may Predict a Decrease in Left Ventricular Ejection Fraction in Lymphoma Patients Undergoing Anthracycline Chemotherapy: A Pilot Study. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2015;4:1.
- Mushtaq M. Choriocarcinoma Presenting as Intracerebral Haemorrhage and No Evident Primary: Rare Presentation. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2015;4:1.
- Kotb AF and Attia D. Correlation between the Presentation of Renal Cell Carcinoma and its Prognosis. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2015;4:1.
- Karimi A, et al. Challenges in Diagnose and Management of Ameloblastic Carcinoma: A Report of Three Cases. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2015;4:2.
- Mohamed T. Editor Note: Atherosclerosis-Open Access. Atheroscler open access. 2016;1:e106.
- Pereira GC. A Multiscale Haemorheological Computer-Based Model of Atherosclerosis: An In-Depth Investigation of Erythrocytes-Driven Flow Characteristics in Atheroma Development. J Biomed Eng Med Devic. 2016;1:119.
- Thomas-Seale LEJ, et al. Magnetic Resonance Elastography through Atherosclerosis: A Feasibility Study. J Clin Exp Cardiolog. 2016;7:481.
- Petrovic D. Markers of Carotid Atherosclerosis in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus. J Diabetic Complications Med. 2016;1:e102.
- 14th Asia Pacific Oncologists Annual Meeting, Melbourne, Australia dated on November 20-22, 2017
- Kones R and Rumana U. Nutrition Studies, Optimum Cardiovascular Health, and Coronary Atherosclerosis-Ensuring A Solid Foundation for Public Policy. J Clin Exp Cardiolog. 2016;7:e145.
- Gabaev DD. How I Reached the Age of 65 with a Congenital Heart Disease and Atherosclerosis. Anat Physiol. 2016;6:228.
- Alam MA. Editorial: Misguided Macrophage and Risk of Coronary Atherosclerosis. J Vasc Med Surg. 2016;4:e118.
- Côco H and Oliveira AM. Endothelial Dysfunction Induced by Chronic Psychological Stress: A Risk Factor for Atherosclerosis. Cardiovasc Pharm Open Access. 2015;4:168.
- Margiotta DPE, et al. The Complex Role of Leptin in SLE: Is Leptin A Key Link Between Metabolic Syndrome, Accelerated Atherosclerosis and Autoimmunity?. Lupus Open Access. 2016;1:107.
- Afroz R, et al. Honey-derived Flavonoids: Natural Products for the Prevention of Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Diseases. Clin Exp Pharmacol. 2016;6:208.
- Kozarov E. (Re) Viewing Atherosclerosis as an Infectious Disease - A Key to Personalized Medicine. J Bacteriol Parasitol. 2012;3:e103.
- Lucas A. Atherosclerosis, Cancer, Wound Healing, and Inflammation - Shared or Parallel Evolution. J Clin Exp Cardiolog. 2012;3:e107.
- Mauriello A and Sangiorgi G. Inflammation and Atherosclerosis: Evolving Concepts Leading the Development of New Therapies. J Metabolic Synd. 2012;1:e106.
- Xu S. ROCK the Rock of Atherosclerosis. J Vasc Med Surg. 2013;1:e101.
- Erzengin F. New Hypotheses and Viewpoints for Atherosclerosis in 2013. Gen Med (Los Angel). 2014;2:130.
- Camici M, et al. Obesity and Increased Risk for Atherosclerosis and Cancer. Intern Med. 2014;4:154.
- Maeda Y, et al. Relationship between Cellular Senescence and Redox Potential on Adult T-Cell Leukemia Cells. J Blood Res Hematol Dis. 2016;1:1.
- Paulsrud C, et al. Autoimmune Thyroid Disease in Patients with Philadelphia-Negative Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasms Treated with Interferon-Alpha. J Blood Res Hematol Dis. 2016;1:1.
- Vassilakopoulos TP and Papageorgiou SG. Recent Advances in Hodgkin Lymphoma. J Blood Res Hematol Dis. 2016;1:2.
- Trivedi PJ, et al. Characterization of Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements in Acute Myeloid Leukemia: FISH and Multicolor FISH Add Precision in Defining Abnormalities Associated with Poor Prognosis. J Blood Res Hematol Dis. 2016;1:2.
- Patel A. Does the Role of Angiogenesis play a Role in Atherosclerosis and Plaque Instability?. Anat Physiol. 2014;4:147.
- Turiel M, et al. Strategies for Early Identification 0f Atherosclerosis in Systemic Autoimmune Disease. J Cardiovasc Dis Diagn. 2014;2: 167.
- Roldan PC, et al. Aortic Atherosclerosis in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus. Rheumatology (Sunnyvale). 2014;S5:006.
- Serrano-Pertierra E, et al. Lysophosphatidylcholine Induces Vascular Smooth Muscle Cell Membrane Vesiculation: Potential Role in Atherosclerosis through Caveolin-1 Regulation. J Proteomics Bioinform. 2014;7:332-339.
- Mahajan K. Microparticles in Atherosclerosis: Biomarkers of Disease. J Clin Exp Cardiolog. 2015;6:356.
- Hamirani YS, et al. Association between Inflammatory Markers and Liver Fat: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis. J Clin Exp Cardiolog. 2014;5:344.
- Ershidat OTM. The Protective and Curative Role of Star Anise Extract against Margarine-Induced Atherosclerosis in Male Rats. J Food Nutr Disor. 2016;5:6.
- Eagles AN and Lovell DI. Cardiovascular Disease and the Dietary Consumption of Saturated Fats: A Review of the Strength of the Literature and Evidence. J Cardiovasc Res. 2016;5:6.
- Alqudaimi HYM, et al. The Effect of Periodontal Therapy on Atherosclerosis in Cardiovascular Disease: Clinical, Biochemical, Microbiological and Experimental Study. J Cardiovasc Res. 2016;5:1.
- Kishida S, et al. Short-Term Treatment with an Angiotensin II Receptor Blocker Prevents Necrotic Core Formation by Inhibiting Oxidative Stress-Mediated Apoptosis in Macrophages. J Cardiovasc Res. 2016;5:1.
- Barbalho SM, et al. Is C-reactive Protein Related to Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Brazilian Patients undergoing Coronary Angiography?. J Cardiovasc Res. 2016;5:1.
- Rajati M, et al. Is Sudden Hearing Loss Associated with Increased Risk of Atherosclerosis?. Prensa Med Argent. 2015;101:6.
- Hatmi ZN, et al. A Systematic Review of Lipid Measures and Lipid Ratios of Five Continents Populations, Estimation of Ratios and Standard Lipid Indices for Atherosclerosis: Persian Study. J Cardiovasc Res. 2015;4:5.
- Chaudhary R, et al. Zinc Ferrite Nanoparticles as Highly Effective Magnetic Resonance Imaging Contrast Agents with Emphasis on Atherosclerosis. J Nanomater Mol Nanotechnol. 2015;4:3.
- Dina SA, et al. Diagnosis and Treatment of Atherosclerosis: A Review Article. Prensa Med Argent. 2015;101:4.
- hmadi N, et al. Aged Garlic Extract with Supplement is Associated with Beneficial Effect on Bone Mineral Density and Predicts Lack of Progression of Atherosclerosis: A Prospective Double Blinded Randomized Trial. Int J Cardiovasc Res. 2015;4:3.
- Akintunde AA, et al. Carotid Intima Media Thickness as a Surrogate Marker of Atherosclerosis and Cardiovascular Burden in Hypertensive Subjects: Relevance and Implications. Prensa Med Argent. 2013;99:10.
- Jascolka TL, et al. Kefir Supplementation Improves Lipid Profile and Oxidative Stress but does not Reduce Atherosclerotic Lesion in apoE Deficient Mice. J Food Nutr Disor. 2013;2:3.
- Lucas A. Atherosclerosis, Cancer, Wound Healing, and Inflammation - Shared or Parallel Evolution. Int J Cardiovasc Res. 2012;1:1.
- Yousef YA, et al. External Beam Radiation Therapy for Retinoblastoma Resistant to Chemotherapy and Focal Treatment: Outcome and Predictive Factors. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2015;4:2.
- Kuperman VY, et al. Evaluation of Automatic and Manual Contouring of Cranial Structures. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2015;4:3.
- Brown MA, et al. Developing Research Networks to Enhance Cross-Mentoring and Representation of Women in Clinical and Experimental Oncology. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2015;4:3.
- Slaoui W, et al. Unusual Ulcerated Nodules of Scalp with Histological Proof of Cutaneous Metastasis Derived from Prostate Cancer: Report of a Case J Clin Exp Oncol. 2015;4:3.
- Mandal S, et al. A Case of Multiple Myeloma Presenting with Plasmacytoma of Body of Sphenoid Bone: A Case Report J Clin Exp Oncol. 2015;4:3.
- Der EM, et al. Malignant Tumours of the Female Genital Tract: A 10-Year Histopathological Review at the Korle-Bu Teaching Hospital (2002-2011). J Clin Exp Oncol. 2015;4:4.
- Gong Z, et al. Effect of Vaccination with Different Types and Dosages against a Very Virulent Marek’s Disease Virus Strain. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2015;4:4.
- Brahmbhatt MM, et al. Highly Complex Chromosomal Rearrangements in Patients with Chronic Myeloid Leukemia: An Indian Experience. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2015;4:4
- Tilakaratne WM, et al. Demographic and Histopathological Differences of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Analysis of 4394 Cases from Sri Lanka. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2015;4:4.
- Atalay C, et al. Impact of Loco-Regional Under-treatment in Elderly Patients with Early Breast Cancer (Protocol Yameka-09sdlt); Multi-Centric Retrospective Cohort Study. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2014;3:1
- Azhagesan C. Case Reflection on Cancer of Colon with Metabolic Encephalopathy. J Nurs Patient Care. 2016;1:1.
- Barrett JA, et al. A Synthetic Biology Rheoswitch Therapeutic System®for the Controlled Local Expression of IL-12 as an Immunotherapy for the Treatment of Cancer. Cell Biol (Henderson, NV). 2016;5:2.
- Poljsak B. NAD+in Cancer Prevention and Treatment: Pros and Cons. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:4.
- Ogura A, et al. Novel Evaluation of Intravoxel Incoherent Motion Using Fourier Analysis for Prostate Cancer Detection. J Diagn Tech Biomed Anal. 2016;5:1.
- Decker J, et al. Loss of the Tumor Suppressor NKX3.1 in Prostate Cancer Cells is Induced by Prostatitis Related Mitogens. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:3.
- Santos EMS, et al. Obesity-Related Genes and Oral Cancer: A Bioinformatics Approach and Systematic Review. J Appl Bioinform Comput Biol. 2016;5:1.
- Norollahi SE, et al. The Role of MicroRNAs in Cancer Progression. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:2.
- Oleksyszyn J. Spontaneous Regression of Cancer, an Ever Actual Inspiration for the New Cancer Treatment. Cell Biol: Res Ther. 2016;5:1.
- Cheng BYL, et al. Revisiting the Role of TLR/IRAK Signaling and its Therapeutic Potential in Cancer. J Liver: Dis Transplant. 2015;5:1.
- Guest TC and Rashid S. Anticancer Laccases: A Review. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:1.
- Tsvetkov Ch, et al. Survival Rate after Individualized Approach in Treatment of Vulvar Cancer: A Ten- Year Single Institution Experience. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:3.
- Ashourpour M, et al. Olive Leaf Extract Reduces Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cells, and Modulates the Function of Residual Cells in Experimental Model of Melanoma. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:3.
- Decker J, et al. Loss of the Tumor Suppressor NKX3.1 in Prostate Cancer Cells is Induced by Prostatitis Related Mitogens. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:3.
- Panucci RKI, et al. In vitro Study of Anti-Leukemic Potential of Ursolic Acid in Jurkat Cell Line. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:3.
- Huang H, et al. Prognostic Significance of KAI1/CD82 and its Relation Tod2-40 Labeled Lymphatic Vessel Invasion (LVI) and Lymphatic Vessel Density (LVD) in Esophageal Squamous Cell Carcinoma (ESCC). J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:3.
- Kerivan L, et al. Male Breast Cancer. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:4.
- Babayeuski R, et al. Colonic Adenocarcinoma in a Patient with Velo Cardio Facial Syndrome (VCFS) and 22q11.2 Microdeletion. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:4.
- Poljsak B. NAD+ in Cancer Prevention and Treatment: Pros and Cons. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:4.
- Tekin C, et al. MDM2 Gen Polymorphisms at Acute Myeloid LeukemÃ¯Â¿Â½?±a Patients. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:4.
- Farzanfar H, et al. VEGF Expression Evaluation in Patients with Esophageal Cancer by using Reverse Transcriptase Real- Time Polymerase Chain Reaction. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:6.
- Gumustas SA, et al. Is it Possible to Expedite Studies on the Effects of Pharmacological Agents on Primary Cell Cultures Obtained from High-grade Fibular Osteosarcoma? J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:6.
- Clemente N, et al. Enterouterine Fistula as Initial Presentation of Advanced Endometrial Cancer: Description of a Rare Case and Review of the Literature. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:6.
- Hayashibara N, et al. Parathyroid Carcinoma Coincident With Neurofibromatosis Type 1. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:6.
- Epstein-Barr. Virus Associated Lymphoepithelioma-Like Carcinoma of the Esophagogastric Junction and Stomach: A Case Report and Review of the Literature. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;5:6.
- Malone MV, et al. Lack of Association between Angiogenin (AGN) KO Mice with Improvement in Muscle Strength, Resistance, but Decreased in Chances of Tumorigenesis: Observational Study. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;6:1.
- Dombi P, et al. Thromboembolic Events in Polycythaemia Vera Patients: An Audit of the Hungarian Philadelphia Negative Chronic Myeloproliferative Neoplasia Register. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2016;6:1.
- Suyama K, et al. Chemotherapy for Patients with Renal Dysfunction. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2017;6:1.
- Hassoun HK, et al. Can Medulloblastoma be Presented with Primary Diffuse Leptomeningeal Gliomatosis? Case Report and Literature Review. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2017;6:1.
- Rodrigues C, et al. Immunosurveillance in Colorectal Carcinomas with Microsatellite Instability. J Clin Exp Oncol. 2017;6:1.
- Maghous A, et al. Evaluation of Cisplatin Induced Toxicity in Head and Neck Cancer and Cervical Cancer During Concurrent Chemoradiotherapy. Experience of National Institute of Oncology in Morocco. J Cancer Sci Ther. 2017;9:314-318.
- Espeli V and Mangas C. A Case of Eruptive Disseminated Porokeratosis in a Cancer Patient after Trastuzumab and Exemestane Treatment: Cancer Related or Drug Induced Phenomenon?. J Clin Exp Dermatol Res. 2017;8: 382.
- Lu D, et al. Anticancer Drug Development, Getting Out from Bottleneck. Med Chem (Los Angeles). 2017;7:739-744.
- Jordaan S, et al. A Review of Cervical Cancer in South Africa: Previous, Current and Future. Health Care Current Reviews. 2016;4:180.
- Njaka SRN. A Systemic Review of Incidence of Cancer and Challenges to its Treatment in Nigeria. J Cancer Sci Ther. 2016;8:286- 288.
- Utku N and Pape UF. Neuroendocrine Tumors. J Mult Scler. 2016;3:193.
- Huang Y. Anticancer Activity and Mechanism of Alpha-Helical Antimicrobial Peptide. Drug Des. 2016;5:e133.
- Hu C, et al. Design and Modification of Anticancer Peptides. Drug Des. 2016;5:138.
- Manasa P. Epigenetics – Role as Biomarker in Cancer Diagnosis. Adv Oncol Res Treat. 2016;1: r001.
- Morishita S. Does Physical Exercise Help to Prevent Cancer Recurrence? Int J Phys Med Rehabil. 2016;4:379.
- Maamri A. Cancer in Africa: The Case of Eastern Morocco. Pediatr Ther. 2016;6:301