Department of Biotechnology, Amity University, Noida, New-Delhi, India
- Corresponding Author:
- Poonam Jaggi
Department of Biotechnology
Noida, New Delhi, India
Email: [email protected]
Received: 22/07/2016; Accepted: 24/08/2016; Published: 30/08/2016
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This review paper aims to fight with women’s breast cancer which is most common worldwide and second leading after the skin cancer which leading to death. It’s quite common in the Asian, Africa countries less compared to Western countries like USA, Canada. The causative factors include several factors, age, family history, obesity, lifestyle, diet, alcohol, endocrine factors both endogenous and exogenous and genetics. It is important to understand the pathogenesis of most common disease, which is associated with mortality and with high morbidity if didn’t detect early stages of the disease.
Breast cancer, BRCA II gene
Breast cancer ranks third most burdens of diseases and the leading causes of death by more than a four hundred thousand in the sixth position in the world. Breast cancer types of malignant cancer cells form in the tissues of the breast it occur mostly in women’s, but some of the scientific reports show that it can also occur in men’s, which originates from ducts is called as ductal carcinomas, which is originating from the lobules which are called as lobular carcinomas [1-9] . It occurs due to the exposure to the radiation waves, high levels of the estrogen glands beyond of its function and family history of can also increase risk of this type of cancer [6,10]. In the additions because of its rarity and the facts that women with mutations in the BRCA II gene are at an increased risk compared to the normal populations for the breast cancer development, men’s with breast cancers are now a listed indications for genetic testing [8,11-14].
In the worlds, breast cancer is the second most cancer which occurs in the women and next to the skin cancer. Every year there are nearly about 2,400 new cases of breast cancer in men’s and about 2,40,000 new cases in the women’s itself in the USA [15-20]. For every medicals oncologist, the adjuvant management of breast cancers is similar to that used in the every cancer treatments [21-22]. Adjuvant chemotherapy’s are used to treat breast cancer patients who had been a substantial risks or recurrence and death from breast cancer [23-25]. Unfortunately, prospective trials evaluated the benefits of adjuvant systemic chemotherapy’s in men’s had not been performed [26-35].
The treatment for the BC has been traditionally following guidelines for the treatment of the cancers. Due to rarity of the cancers the facts that the tumors are usually large in the comparisons to the size of the breast, and the facts that many of the tumors arises beneath of the nipples or involves in the nipple-areolar complex; mastectomy had been the standard treatment [32-34,36-40]. A completed axillary node dissection is routinely included to provide the nodal staging information’s, since the regional nodes are the most common sites of metastases [41-60]. However, during the past 11 years, the surgery for breast cancer in the women’s has been become more conservative, with breast preservations and the lumpectomy replacing mastectomy in the up to 66% of the patient’s population [41-45,61-70]. The axillary surgery has been also become more conservative with the intraoperative lymphatic mapping and the sentinel lymph nodes biopsy replacing radical node dissections. Alterations in the treatment strategies for men’s have lagged behind those in women’s [49,51-53,71-75].
Based on the appearance of the cancers from the microscope it can be classified in to two to three types, most of these type of cancer are carcinoma which can be classified in to two types [54-57].
Ductal Carcinoma In Situ
Ductal carcinoma in-situ DCIS is the most common types of the non-invasive cancer [58,72-73]. Ductal which starts from the milk ducts, it cancers refers to the any cancer that begins with in the epidermis of the skin or other tissues including the breast tissues that covers or lines the internal organs, and in-situ means "in its original place." DCIS is a "non-invasive" it does not spread beyond the milk ducts within the breast tissues [59-64]. It is not much life-threatening, but having DCIS can increased the risks of the developing an invasive breast cancers.
Invasive Ductal Carcinoma
Invasive Ductal Carcinoma means that the cancers which spreads to the surrounding the tissue of breast Cancer. Its starts from the ducts which carry the milk from the milk-producing lobules to the breast nipples [65,66]. All together, “IDC” refers to the cancer that which breaks the wall of the milk ducts and begins to enter the breast tissue. As time precedes that invasive ductal carcinoma spread to the others parts of the human body [67-69].
There are the different types of treatment with breast cancers like surgery, Radiography, chemotherapy & hormones therapy. Some of the breast cancer treatment may causes side effects after months or years when treatment has been ended [68,76-80].
Different Types of Five Standard Treatments are used for Patients with Cancer
Most of the patients with cancers have surgery to removes the Breast Cancer cells. Breast surgery is an operation to removes the cancer and some tissues around it, but not the breast tissues. The chest wall lining May also removed if the cancers cells are near it. This type of surgery may also be known lumpectomy, partial mastectomy, and segmental mastectomy. Total mastectomy is the type of surgery to remove the whole breast Cancer cells [79-81].
Radiation therapy is the types of cancer treatments are used x-rays or radiations to kill the cancer cells. There are two types of radiations are used for the cancer treatment [82-85].
External radiation therapy
It uses a machine outside the body to send the radiations towards the cancers cells .
Internal radiation therapy
It uses radioactive substances sealed with needles & wires that are directly placed into the cancers. The radiations therapy are given depends upon the type & stage of the cancers [87-94]. External radiations are used for the treatment of breast cancers & internal radiations with Sr-89 are used to relief bone pain with caused by breast cancer. Sr-89 is injected into the veins & travels to the bone surface after that radiation is released & kills the cancer [54,95].
Chemotherapy’s are a treatment of cancers cells that uses drug to stop the growth of the cancer cells either killing the cancer cells or by stopping from dividing. When chemotherapy injected into a veins or muscles then drugs enter the blood streams & reached into the cancers cells [71,96].
Breast cancer is well-known malignancy among women and partial in the men’s; around 1 in 8 American ladies will build up the disease in their lifetime. In around 2,46,560 new cases of the invasive breast cancer will diagnosed in US. This Year more than 40 thousand women will die from breast cancer. A month ago, medical news investigated a study that discovered obesity changed the gene expression of man’s sperm which increases the breast cancer risk of their daughter. Therefore, early screening of these disease whom where in a high risk or whom where are susceptible individuals to the other individuals, along with its surveillance of treating the cases in order to detect at the early stages, which has to be advocated [91-99].
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