Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Kyushu University, Fukuoka, Japan
Received: 26-May-2022, Manuscript No. JMB-22-68396; Editor assigned: 30-May-2022, Pre-QC No. JMB-22-68396(PQ); Reviewed: 13-Jun-2022, QC No. JMB-22-68396; Revised: 20-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. JMB-22-68396 (R); Published: 27-Jun- 2022, DOI: 10.4172/2320-3528.11.5.001
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
The study of soil microorganisms, their functions and how they impact soil characteristics is known as soil microbiology. The first identified bacteria and microbes on earth are thought to have originated in the waters between two and four billion years ago. These bacteria could have the ability to fix nitrogen and as they arose over time, they released oxygen into the environment. The several types of soil microorganisms include bacteria, actinomycetes, fungus, algae and protozoa. Apart from viruses, bacteria and archaea are the smallest organisms found in soil. They are the most prevalent microorganisms in the soil and have a variety of critical functions, including as fixing nitrogen. The quantity of bacteria growing in the soil can be influenced by the soil's general makeup.
There may be more bacteria present in a location where there are more minerals. Additionally, these bacteria will produce aggregates, improving the soil's general health. The metabolic adaptability of bacteria is one of their most distinctive characteristics. Numerous chemicals and fertilizers can be metabolized by a bacterium genus known as Pseudomonas. On the other hand, a different genus known as nitrobacter can only obtain its energy through oxidizing nitrite into nitrate. Because it can thrive in the lack of oxygen and respire anaerobically, unlike most species, the genus Clostridium serves as an illustration of the adaptability of bacteria. Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of several pseudomonas species that can respire both aerobically and anaerobically, with nitrate serving as the terminal electron acceptor. In soil and water, nitrogen is frequently the nutrient that is most scarce. The process of nitrogen fixation, which transforms atmospheric nitrogen into nitrogen-containing molecules which plants may utilize, is brought out by bacteria. Like the nitrobacter species, autotrophic bacteria produce their own food through oxidation as a source of energy rather than eating plants or other living things. The bacteria are in charge of regulating nitrogen. Almost every plant and organism needs nitrogen in some form, thus even though autotrophic bacteria are few in number compared to heterotrophic bacteria, these are extremely vital. Soil microbes are known as actinomycetes. They are a form of bacterium, but they also exhibit other traits which are more likely the result of convergent evolution as an outcome of a shared habitat and way of life. In soil, fungi are common, but bacteria are more prevalent. The size, shape and hue of the reproductive spores, which are utilized by fungi to reproduce, are the primary factors used to categorize them into different species. The majority of environmental conditions that affect bacterial and actinomycete growth and also spread affect fungus. Since most fungi rely on organic matter for nourishment, the quality and quantity of organic matter in the soil directly affect the growth of fungi. Through photosynthesis, algae are able to produce their own nutrients. Light energy is converted during photosynthesis into chemical energy, which can then be stored as nutrition. Algae normally spread out evenly wherever sunlight and mild moisture are present because they need light to grow because photosynthesis relies on it. Algae can survive below the soil surface in the presence of constant temperatures and moisture levels without being exposed to the sun directly. Additionally, algae are able to fix nitrogen. Protozoa are eukaryotic organisms that were among the first microorganisms to reproduce sexually. This represents a huge evolutionary step from the duplication of spores, which is a need for many other soil microbes. The three subgroups of protozoa are ciliates, amoebae and flagellates. Flagellates are the tiniest protozoa and can be further classified according on whether they can engage in photosynthesis. Because chlorophyll is the green pigment that absorbs sunlight, flagellates devoid of chlorophyll are unable to undergo photosynthesis. The majority of these flagellates are found in soil. Chlorophyll containing flagellates are often found in aquatic environments. Flagella, which are the flagellates means of propulsion, can be used to identify them. Some species only have one flagella, which resembles a long branch or appendage, whereas others have several flagella. Salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, ethylene and plant hormones are important regulators of innate immunity in plant leaves.