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Clinical Features of Pearson Syndrome: Understanding the Mitochondrial Disorder

Shiva Ramakrishnan*

Department of Medicine, University of Delhi, New Delhi, India

Corresponding Author:
Shiva Ramakrishnan
Department of Medicine
University of Delhi
New Delhi, India

Received: 30-May-2023, Manuscript No. JCMCS-23- 100425; Editor assigned: 01- Jun-2023, Pre QC No. JCMCS- 23-100425 (PQ); Reviewed: 15-Jun-2023, QC No. JCMCS- 23-100425; Revised: 22-Jun- 2023, Manuscript No. JCMCS- 23-100425 (R); Published: 30- Jun-2023, DOI: 10.4172/J Clin Med Case Stud.8.2.002.

Citation: Ramakrishnan S. Clinical Features of Pearson Syndrome: Understanding the Mitochondrial Disorder. J Clin Med Case Stud. 2023;8:002.

Copyright: © 2023 Ramakrishnan S. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Pearson Syndrome is a rare mitochondrial disorder that affects infants and young children. It is a severe and life-threatening condition that affects multiple organs in the body. In this manuscript, we will explore the causes, symptoms, diagnosis, and treatment options available for Pearson Syndrome. Pearson syndrome is a mitochondrial disease characterised by exocrine pancreas failure and sideroblastic anaemia. Failure to thrive, exocrine pancreatic deficit, pancreatic fibrosis with insulin-dependent diabetes, muscular and neurologic damage, and sometimes early death are further clinical characteristics. Infants are often when it is lethal. The few patients who live to adulthood frequently experience Kearns-Sayre syndrome symptoms. A loss in the mitochondrial DNA is the reason. Less than 100 cases of Pearson syndrome have ever been documented in medical literature.


Pearson Syndrome is caused by a mutation in the mitochondrial DNA. Mitochondrial DNA is passed down from the mother and if a mutation occurs, it can lead to the development of Pearson Syndrome. The mutation affects the body's ability to produce energy, which can cause damage to multiple organs in the body. Hepatic and renal functions may be compromised, along with the presence of neutropenia and thrombocytopenia. The frequent 4977 bp mutation, which is located between locations 5500 bp and 16000 bp in mitochondrial DNA, is one of more than 19 deletion mutations of varied sizes that cause it. The degree to which a tissue is impacted by the loss of genes that encode mitochondria-specific t-RNA relies on the percentage of mitochondrial DNA that is the deleted form. Megaloblastic erythropoiesis has a large proportion of ring sideroblasts. Maternal inheritance is difficult to ascertain because of heteroplasmy, and the majority of cases are referred to as "sporadic" occurrences. The symptoms of Pearson Syndrome can vary from person to person, but some common symptoms include anemia, liver and kidney failure, and failure to thrive. Other symptoms may include developmental delays, muscle weakness, and seizures.


The diagnosis of Pearson Syndrome can be challenging as the symptoms are similar to other conditions. A blood test can be done to check for the mutation in mitochondrial DNA. Other tests may include a liver biopsy or a bone marrow biopsy. Another possibility is genetic testing, which would confirm the Pearson Syndrome diagnosis if deletions or duplications of mitochondrial DNA were found.


Treatment for Pearson syndrome is primarily supportive and may vary depending on the individual case. As the condition is caused by a mitochondrial DNA deletion, there is currently no cure. Treatment options may include blood transfusions to manage anemia, antibiotics to treat infections, and nutritional support to address malabsorption. In severe cases, a bone marrow transplant may be considered. It is important to work closely with a healthcare team to manage symptoms and monitor for complications. Early diagnosis and intervention are crucial for improving outcomes and quality of life for individuals with Pearson syndrome.

The conclusion was that the Pearson Syndrome is a rare and life-threatening mitochondrial disorder that affects infants and young children. It is caused by a mutation in mitochondrial DNA and can lead to anemia, liver and kidney failure, and developmental delays. While there is currently no cure for Pearson Syndrome, early diagnosis and treatment can help manage symptoms and improve outcomes.