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Communicable Disease: Prevention And Treatment

Srinitha Battual

Department of Pharmceutical Sciences, Vishwanadha College of Pharmacy, India

Corresponding Author

                                  Srinitha B,

                                  Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,

                                  Vishwanadha College of Pahrmacy, India.

Received Date: 10/04/2021; Accepted Date: 24/04/2021; Published Date: 30/04/2021

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Abstract

A communicable disease is one that spreads from person to person or animal to animal. Communicable diseases are often referred to as "infectious" or "transmissible" diseases. Communicable diseases are caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protists [1]. After being infected by the pathogen, a person can develop a communicable disease.

INTRODUCTION

A communicable disease is one that spreads from person to person or animal to animal. Communicable diseases are often referred to as "infectious" or "transmissible" diseases. Communicable diseases are caused by pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protists [1]. After being infected by the pathogen, a person can develop a communicable disease. This could happen as a result of:

  • Close interaction with a pathogen-carrying individual
  • Contacting infected fluids like blood, mucus, or saliva
  • Catching a cold by inhaling infected droplets from someone else's cough or sneeze
  • Receiving a bite from a pathogen-carrying animal or insect
  • Ingesting tainted food or drinking tainted water

When a pathogen enters a person's body, it begins to replicate. After that, the person can start to experience symptoms.

Some signs are caused by the pathogen causing damage to the body's cells. Others are caused by the immune system's reaction to the infection. Symptoms of communicable diseases are normally mild and disappear within a few days. Some, on the other hand, can be serious and even life-threatening [2].

Most public health work revolves around preventing and managing disease transmission. Infectious disease outbreaks can have a huge effect on public health, from the coronavirus-cased COVID-19 to influenza, Lyme disease, malaria, and Ebola.

About communicable diseases

Some diseases are transmitted from person to person, while others are transmitted from animal to human. Some diseases are transmitted through the air, through contact, or through bodily fluids. Some illnesses have mild symptoms, whereas others are fatal. "Without the requisite funds, battling Zika, Ebola, and other infectious diseases is a losing war," writes APHA member Jonathan Fielding, professor of public health and paediatrics at UCLA, in this op-ed.

The APHA's Control of Communicable Diseases Manual lists more than 200 infectious diseases. Such examples are: Zika; Ebola; Dengue; Influenza: seasonal; pandemic; H1N1 swine flu; Lyme disease; MERS [3].

Prevention

There are several methods for preventing disease transmission. Vaccines have aided in the elimination or significantly diminished the threat of disease. Children, teenagers, and adults should all be vaccinated and receive the prescribed immunizations. Handwashing is important to keep germs at bay, particularly before and after handling food and using the toilet.

Other effective ways to delay or stop disease transmission include eating healthy food and drinking safe water, avoiding sick people, and practising safe sex.

Treatment

Some communicable disorders have only minor signs that go away on their own. Others can result in serious symptoms or even life-threatening consequences [4]. Treatment varies depending on whether the disease is bacterial, viral, or fungal.

Viral infections

Vaccines are an extremely effective way to avoid such viral infections. When an individual receives a vaccine, they are getting a virus that is dead or inactive. In response, the immune system produces antibodies that can destroy an active form of the virus in the future.

If an individual already has a virus, antiviral medications may be required to keep the virus at bay.

Bacterial infections

A bacterial infection can necessitate the use of antibiotics to help contain the infection. These drugs function by either destroying or stopping bacteria from replicating.

Fungal infections

Antifungal drugs, both over-the-counter and prescription, may be needed for a serious or chronic fungal infection. These can be taken orally or applied topically.

SUMMARY

Diseases that can be passed from one individual to another are known as communicable diseases. The pathogens that cause these diseases can spread through the air, contact with infected substances or surfaces, and animal and insect bites, among other methods. Many communicable diseases have minor symptoms that resolve on their own. Others necessitate medication to prevent them from worsening. A person's risk of contracting and transmitting disease-causing pathogens may be reduced by taking some precautions. This involve getting the required vaccines, washing hands frequently, and keeping good hygiene at home.

REFERENCES

1. Coordinated Student Health Services “Communicable Diseases: Prevention and Control” Retrieved from http://www.browardhealthservices.com/communicable-diseases/communicable-diseases-prevention-and- control/

2. WHO “Communicable Diseases (CDS)” retrieved from https://www.who.int/about/structure/organigram/htm/en/

3. Wolkoff, B., et al. “Prevention and Control of Communicable Diseases” 2011 https://health.mo.gov/living/families/schoolhealth/pdf/Communicable_Disease.pdf

4. Kandola, A. “Everything you need to know about communicable diseases” Medical News Today. 2020 Retrieved from https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/communicable-diseases

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