All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Determination of Cost and Time Requirements for Drug Development and its Phases

Christina Glory*

Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Purdue University, Vila Mariana, Brazil

Corresponding Author:
Christina Glory
Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences,
Purdue University,
Vila Mariana,

Received: 28-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JPPS-22-82881; Editor assigned: 01-Dec-2022, Pre QC No. JPPS-22-82881 (PQ); Reviewed: 15-Dec-2022, QC No. JPPS-22-82881; Revised: 22-Dec-2022, Manuscript No. JPPS-22-82881 (R); Published: 29-Dec-2022, DOI: 10.4172/2320-1215.11.7.002

Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews in Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences


Drug development is a dangerous and drawn-out process that calls for significant financial (around $500 million), human, research, and technological resources. Even in the beginning, costs are significant. Currently, it takes around 6 months and $500 000 to determine whether a tiny molecule can be created. A thorough breakdown of the expenditures associated with long-term animal testing has been released, and it costs between $3 and $7 million. The average NCE takes 12 years and close to $1 billion in new medication research to reach commercialization. Compound failure might be to blame for $200 million. Recently, Ragaglias're (NN622), a dual-acting insulin sensitizer that targets the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor family, was discovered to be positive in the carcinogenic bioassay study (urinary bladder tumours were observed in mice and rats). The drug had to be discontinued during phase III trials, despite having cost many millions of dollars to develop. Even more expensive (in millions of dollars), the expenses of basic clinical testing for an NCE are 15.2, 15.7, and 27.0 for phases I, II, and III, respectively. A compound's loss when it is abandoned during testing (some as late as phase III) is considerable, costing on average about $200 million. Since the middle of the 1960s, modifications have been made to the drug approval procedure to dramatically increase the safety and effectiveness of new medications intended for use in general medicine. But one effect of these adjustments has been to lengthen the process and raise the price of bringing a new medicine to market. It has been demonstrated that even modest improvements in clinical trial results and decision-making can save hundreds of millions of dollars and shorten the time to market.

In 1960, it took an average of 7.9 years for a chemical to be synthesized before the NDA was approved; by 1990, that average had increased to 12.8 years. Estimates for 2004 fell to 3.2 to 8.5 years, but gaps of 10 to 20 years are not unusual. The need for more stringent testing methods, the administrative components of testing, and the crucial participation of certain population subgroups, such the elderly, in studies all contribute to the expanding time needs for clinical testing. For NCEs belonging to the following major medication groups, the length of clinical testing varies from 53 to 86 months: anti-infectives: 74 months; antineoplastics: 116 months; and immunological drugs: 100 months. The capitalized cost of NCE development would drop by 16% if the clinical phases of drug development could be completed in 25% less time.

12 leads out of every 100 go through the process and become an NDA59 (1:500025). The overall final clinical success rate for all experimental medicines between 1983 and 2001 was 21.5%. In the advanced stages of NCE development, pharmacokinetic problems (40%) and animal toxicity (11.8%) are the main reasons for project failure. Other significant factors for compound attrition include late evaluation of safety and efficacy, low therapeutic indices (the ratio of the maximum tolerated dose to the therapeutic dose per kilogram based on repeated treatment in two animal species), and the length, scope, and expense of clinical studies. By using dependable and precise biomarkers as early indicators of efficacy and long-term toxicity, the latter variables can be decreased. It has been demonstrated that slight improvements in decision-making and clinical trial outcomes can result in significant cost (hundreds of millions of dollars) and time-to-market reductions.

Due in part to deficiencies in the examination of the candidate drug's pharmacokinetic features, the rising number of potential hits created each year has not been accompanied by a similar rise in the number of NCEs that reach the clinical trial stage. Some authors have recently emphasized the wisdom of mandating early human pharmacokinetic investigations. The majority of manufacturers follow a step-by-step strategy, with clearly defined milestones for evaluating the results and choosing whether to move forward or not, due to the high expense and intricacy of the medication development process. To make judgments and guarantee a decent chance of success as early as the lead stage of the NCE, a balance between investments and the length of intermediate periods between testing phases must be struck. Additionally, the project time must be continuously evaluated.