Department of Pathology, King Fahd University, Dhahran, Saudi Arabia
Received: 27-May-2022, Manuscript No. JCMCS-22- 68648; Editor assigned: 01- Jun-2022, Pre QC No. JCMCS-22-68648 (PQ); Reviewed: 14-Jun-2022, QC No. JCMCS-22-68648; Revised: 21-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. JCMCS-22- 68648 (R); Published: 28- Jun-2022, DOI: 10.4172/J Clin Med Case Stud.7.5.004.
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The most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder, Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is characterised by behavioural disturbances as well as cognitive and intellectual deficits. For many years, AD has been diagnosed using the Electroencephalogram (EEG). A shift of the power spectrum to lower frequencies and a reduction in the coherence of fast rhythms are the defining features of EEG abnormalities in AD patients. According to current theories, these abnormalities are linked to functional disconnections between cortical regions brought on by cortical neuron death, axonal pathology, cholinergic deficits, etc. The clinical implications of nonlinear changes in the EEG of AD patients such as decreased complexity of EEG patterns and decreased information transmission among cortical areas are discussed in particular. In proposed future studies, linear and nonlinear functional connectivity among cortical regions in AD, drug effects on the EEG dynamics and improvement of the accuracy of differential diagnosis and early detection of AD based on multimodal approaches will be investigated. Slower mean frequency, less complex activity and decreased cortical coherences are the hallmarks of EEG abnormalities in AD patients. These abnormalities imply that the EEG is a useful test for the early and differential diagnosis of AD.
It is now possible to identify distinct and trustworthy biomarkers of AD using structural MRI, molecular neuroimaging with PET and cerebrospinal fluid examinations. This development serves as the catalyst for our suggestion of updated AD diagnostic criteria. The framework was created to include both the early stages of dementia before it becomes fully developed as well as the full range of the illness. The clinical foundation of these new criteria is early and significant episodic memory impairment.
They specify that among structural neuroimaging with MRI, molecular neuroimaging with PET and cerebrospinal fluid analysis of amyloid or tau proteins and there must also be at least one or more abnormal biomarkers. The numerous medications under development that aim to alter pathogenesis specifically the production and clearance of amyloid as well as the hyperphosphorylation state of tau which serve as a reminder. To advance these criteria and maximize their sensitivity, specificity and accuracy, validation studies in current and future cohorts are required.
The clinical and pathologic diagnoses of 65 patients with dementia who had undergone lifelong longitudinal research are compared. For Dementia of the Alzheimer Type (DAT) without any other diagnoses, the sensitivity of diagnosis was 87% and the specificity was 78%. Patients with pure multi-infarct dementia and those who had both DAT and multi-infarct dementia could not be distinguished well by the ischemic scale score. On the ischemic scale, 35 of the 38 cases of pure DAT had a score of 4 or less.
Primary care physicians play a crucial role in screening elderly patients for early dementia symptoms and starting treatment that can significantly slow down the disease's progression for as long as possible. With the anticipated rise in the number of people 65 and older, that role and its difficulties will unavoidably expand. It is necessary to replace the propensity of doctors to write off memory issues as a result of normal ageing with awareness of the need to assess and potentially intervene.
An early and accurate diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is crucial for patient care because patients can take preventative measures before irreversible brain damage develops because they are aware of the severity and progression risks. Although there have been numerous studies recently that have used machine learning techniques for Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) of AD.
Electroencephalography's (EEG) difficulty in diagnosing Alzheimer's disease (AD) (EEG) is by comparing the EEG signals of AD patients only to those of healthy subjects, the use of EEG as a tool for AD diagnosis has been extensively studied. Automated EEG diagnosis in a differential diagnosis setting using a new database that was amassed under clinical circumstances and contains the EEG data of 169 patients including those with possible Alzheimer's disease (AD), Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), Subjective Cognitive Impairment (SCI) and other pathologies.
For effective group distinction, just two EEG features—bump modelling (a measure of synchrony) and epoch-based entropy (a measure of signal complexity) are required. Methodology for automatically separating potential AD patients from SCI patients, patients with MCI and patients with other pathologies. SCI patients were distinguished from potential AD patients with a classification accuracy of 91.6% (specificity: 100%, sensitivity: 87.8%) and SCI, potential AD and other patients were classified into three categories with an accuracy range of 81.8% to 88.8%.