All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Diagnostic Techniques and Identification of Peripheral Artery Disease

Sanja Salinas*

Department of Medicine, Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas, Sau Paulo, Brazil

*Corresponding Author:
Sanja Salinas
Department of Medicine,
Pontifical Catholic University of Campinas,
Sau Paulo,

Received: 29-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JCMCS-22- 83413; Editor assigned: 02- Dec-2022, Pre QC No. JCMCS- 22-83413 (PQ); Reviewed: 16- Dec-2022, QC No. JCMCS-22- 83413; Revised: 23-Dec- 2022, Manuscript No. JCMCS- 22-83413 (R); Published: 30- Dec-2022, DOI: 10.4172/J Clin Med Case Stud.7.7.003.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Clinical and Medical Case Studies


The part of the body that is affected determines the symptoms and indicators of Peripheral Artery Disease (PAD). About 66% of PAD patients either have unusual symptoms or no symptoms at all. Intermittent claudication which produces excruciating pain and cramping when walking or exercising is the most typical presenting sign. Resting normally helps to ease the discomfort which is typically felt in the calf muscles of the injured leg. This happens because the muscles in the legs require more oxygen when they are working out. The arteries would typically be able to enhance blood flow which would increase the amount of oxygen reaching the exercised leg. The outcome is that the muscles in the legs become over saturated with lactic acid and the pain can only be relieved by rest. Complications including gangrene and critical limb ischemia can occur in people with severe PAD. When the blood flow blockage in the artery is damaged to the extent that the blood is unable to keep the oxygenation of tissue at rest, critical limb ischemia happens. This may result in numbness or tingling in the foot and toes as well as pain that worsens with rest. Lower limb tissue loss, arterial insufficiency ulcers, erectile dysfunction and gangrene are further effects of severe PAD.


A physical examination, a history of symptoms and confirmatory testing are required for the diagnosis or identification of peripheral artery disease. These examinations may involve imaging ultrasounds, Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) scans or Computed Tomography scans (CT) [1-3]. A doctor will next perform particular exam findings on a patient if they exhibit signs of peripheral artery disease. A medical professional may evaluate a certain diagnosis if they discover abnormal physical exam results. However, confirmation testing is necessary in order to verify a diagnosis. The Ankle-Brachial Index (ABI) should be the first test performed if peripheral vascular disease is suspected. ABIs between 0.90 and 1.40 are regarded as normal. An individual is deemed to have PAD if their ABI is less than 0.90. However, if the ABI is between 0.41 and 0.90, PAD can also be classified as mild to moderate and if it is less than 0.40, it can be classified as severe. Additionally, ABI values between 0.91 and 0.99 are regarded as borderline whereas values greater than 1.40 denote non-compressible arteries. Calculating an ABI greater than 1.40 may reveal calcification-induced stiffening of the vessel wall which can happen in persons with uncontrolled diabetes. ABIs that are abnormally high (>1.40) are typically regarded as false negatives therefore such findings call for additional research and higher-level studies. People with non-compressible arteries are more likely to die from cardiovascular causes within two years.

Patients with suspected PAD and normal ABIs can test their ABIs during exercise. Prior to exercise, a baseline ABI is collected. The patient is then instructed to exercise (often, patients are forced to walk on a treadmill at a steady speed) for up to five minutes until claudication pain manifests at which point the ankle pressure is once more measured. An ABI decline of 15%–20% would indicate PAD.

A lower limb Doppler ultrasonography is typically the next step if the ABIs are abnormal in order to determine the location of the obstruction and the degree of atherosclerosis. By using angiography, which involves inserting a catheter into the common femoral artery and carefully guiding it to the target artery further imaging can be carried out. An X-ray is taken while a radio-dense contrast chemical is injected. Procedures like atherectomy, angioplasty or stenting can be used to identify and cure of any blockage that restricts blood flow that was seen on the X-ray. The imaging method that is the most accessible and popular is contrast angiography. As an alternative to angiography, contemporary Computerised Tomography (CT) scanners offer direct imaging of the vascular system [4-5].

A huge magnet, radio waves and a computer are all used in the noninvasive diagnostic process known as Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) to create precise images of the blood veins inside the body. The benefits of MRA include its safety and capacity to deliver comprehensive three-dimensional high-resolution imaging of the abdomen, pelvis and lower extremities.