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Diphtheria Effect in Human Body

Hydri Margaret

Canter for Environmental and Health Sciences,University of Missouri,USA

Corresponding Author

Hydri Margaret, Center for Environmental and Health Sciences, University of Missouri, USA

Received date: 02/07/2021 Accepted date: 17/07/2021 Published date: 24/07/2021

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Infectious diseases are illnesses brought on by bacteria or viruses (microbes). It's crucial to understand that not all germs (bacteria, viruses, fungi, and parasites) cause illness. In truth, bacteria live on the skin, eyes, nose, and mouth, as well as in the gut. These bacteria are known as typical flora and are found in most homes. The normal flora is beneficial to humans. The microorganisms that live in our bow. Antibiotics and certain illnesses can disrupt the usual bacterial equilibrium. Viral infections frequently cause skin damage and provide the way for hazardous microorganisms to infiltrate the body. Diphtheria is a dangerous bacterial infection that mainly affects your nose and throat mucous membranes. Because of widespread vaccination against the disease, diphtheria is extremely rare in the United States and other affluent countries.

Bacteria are frequently found on the surface of the body, such as the nose or throat, or in the bowels, but there is no sickness. This is known as bacterial carriage, and the individual who carries the bacterium is known as a carrier. The carrier is not ill, but he or she can sometimes transmit or spread the bacterium to another person. Many of the germs transported can cause illness and infection. Diphtheria is a disease that can be cured with medication. Diphtheria is an infection caused by the bacterium Corynebacterium diphtheria [1]. Diphtheria, on the other hand, can harm your heart, kidneys, and neurological system in its later stages. Diphtheria can be fatal even with therapy, especially in youngsters. Swollen glands (enlarged lymph nodes) in your neck, Signs and symptoms of diphtheria usually appear two to five days after infection and include: A thick, grey membrane covering your throat and tonsils, Hoarseness and a painful throat Breathing problems or fast breathing a discharge from the nose Fever and chills are two symptoms of a fever. Diphtheria is caused by a bacteria called Corynebacterium diphtheriae. Personto-person contact or contact with bacteria-infested things, such as a cup or used tissue, are the most common ways for the disease to spread. Diphtheria can also be contracted by being in close proximity to an infected person when they sneeze, cough, or blow their nose. Your nose and throat are the most usually infected areas. Once you've been infected, the bacteria release toxins, which are harmful compounds. Toxins flow through your bloodstream, forming a thick, grey coating in the following parts of your body. Diphtheria is uncommon in the United States and Europe because children are frequently immunised against it. Diphtheria, on the other hand, is still fairly common in developing nations with low immunisation rates. Diphtheria is a disease that affects children under the age of five and seniors over the age of 60 in these countries. Laryngeal diphtheria can cause a swollen neck and throat, also known as "bull neck." The enlarged throat is sometimes accompanied by a dangerous respiratory illness marked by a brassy or "barking" cough, stridor, hoarseness, and trouble breathing; historically known as "diphtheritic croup" or "diphtheritic croup [2]. A physical exam will most likely be performed to look for enlarged lymph nodes. They'll also inquire about your medical history as well as your current symptoms. If you have a grey coating on your throat or tonsils, your doctor may suspect you have diphtheria. Your doctor will remove a sample of the damaged tissue and send it to a laboratory for testing if they need to confirm the diagnosis. Since antitoxin does not neutralize toxin that is already bound to tissues, delaying its administration increases risk of death. Therefore, the decision to administer diphtheria antitoxin is based on clinical diagnosis, and should not await laboratory confirmation [3].

REFERENCES

1. Atkinson and William. Diphtheria Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases. Public Health Foundation. 2012; pp: 215–230.

2. Starling L. Something concerning the diagnosis and treatment of false croup. JAMA: The Journal of the American Medical Association. 2014; XXV (14): 567–573.

3. Atkinson W, et al. Diphtheria (PDF). Epidemiology and Prevention of Vaccine-Preventable Diseases (The Pink Book) (10 ed.). Washington, D.C. Public Health Foundation. 2007; pp. 59–70

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