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Drugs used in Pain Management and its Adverse Effects

Mugenyi Nathan*

Department of Pharmacy, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India

*Corresponding Author:
Mugenyi Nathan
Department of Pharmacy,
Panjab University,
Chandigarh,
India
E-mail:
[email protected]

Received: 03-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JHCP-22- 80110; Editor assigned: 07-Nov-2022, Pre QC No. JHCP-22- 80110 (PQ); Reviewed: 21-Nov-2022, QC No. JHCP-22- 80110; Revised: 28-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JHCP-22- 80110 (R); Published: 05-Dec-2022, DOI: 10.4172/2347-226X.8.6.001.

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Description

The treatment of pain in its different manifestations from acute and minor to chronic and difficult is referred as pain management in medicine and health care. In the usual course of their work, the majority of doctors and other healthcare providers offer some pain relief; but for more complicated cases of pain, they may also need extra assistance from a medical field called pain management. When treating pain whether it is acute or chronic, a multidisciplinary approach is frequently used to reduce suffering and enhance quality of life. To promote and hasten the healing process, medicine treats illnesses and injuries. Pain is treated in order to lessen suffering throughout therapy, recovery and death. In three situations, the goal of medicine is to alleviate suffering. The first situation is when a painful injury or pathology is unresponsive to therapy and continues. The second situation is pain that lingers even after an injury or pathology has healed. The third situation is when pain's underlying cause cannot be determined by medicine. Pharmacological treatments for chronic pain include analgesics (painkillers), antidepressants, and anticonvulsants. Interventional methods include physical therapy, exercise, and the administration of ice or heat. Psychological treatments include biofeedback and cognitive behavioural therapy.

Adverse effects

There are numerous approaches of treating pain. Each has unique advantages, disadvantages, and restrictions. Communication between the medical professional and the person in pain can be difficult while trying to manage their pain. People who are in pain could have trouble identifying or expressing what they are feeling and how severe it is. Patients and medical professionals may have trouble communicating about how pain reacts to treatments. In various forms of pain management, there is a chance that the patient will receive care that is insufficiently effective or that will have other issues and adverse effects. If used excessively, some pain medications might be hazardous.

Drugs

Opioids: Depending on the medicine's unique characteristics and whether it was designed as an extended release drug, opioid drugs can produce quick, moderate, or long acting analgesia. Oral, intravenous, transdermal, transdermal injection, nasal or oral mucosa, rectally, transdermal, epidural, and intrathecal are all possible ways to give opioid medicines. OxyContin, MS Contin, Opana ER, Exalgo, and Methadone are examples of long-acting or extended release medications that are frequently prescribed in conjunction with a shorter-acting medication (oxycodone, morphine, or hydromorphone) for breakthrough pain or exacerbations in chronic pain conditions that respond to opioids.

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs: Nonsteroidal Anti-Inflammatory medications (NSAIDs) are the other main class of analgesics (NSAID). They function by preventing the production of prostaglandins, which are responsible for inflammatory pain. This family of drugs does not usually include acetaminophen/paracetamol.

Antidepressants and antiepileptic drugs: The central nervous system's pain pathways are the primary target of some antidepressant and antiepileptic medications used to treat chronic pain, however peripheral processes have also been implicated.

Cannabinoids: In models of acute pain, cannabinoids are as effective as opioids, and in chronic pain models, they are even more effective. Contrary to the CBD strain, it is the THC variety of medical marijuana that primarily has analgesic effects.

Ketamine: In the emergency department, ketamine is a secure and reliable substitute for opioids in the treatment of acute pain. Ketamine most likely lessens nausea and vomiting and lessens pain than opioids.

Other analgesics: For neuropathic pain, anticholinergic medications like trazodone, orphenadrine, and cyclobenzaprine are administered alongside opioids. Muscle relaxants orphenadrine and cyclobenzaprine are also helpful for painful musculoskeletal problems.