Department of Pathology, Aix-Marseille University, Marseille, France
Received: 07-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. JCMCS-22-52158; Editor assigned: 10-Jan-2022, Pre QC No. JCMCS-22-52158 (PQ); Reviewed: 24-Jan-2022, QC No. JCMCS-22-52158; Accepted: 27-Jan-2022, Manuscript No.JCMCS-22-52158 (A); Published: 03-Feb-2022, DOI: 10.4172/J Clin Med Case Stud.7.1.005
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Oncology is a medical speciality that focuses on cancer prevention, diagnosis, and therapy. Enhanced preventative efforts to minimize exposure to risk factors (e.g., tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption), improved screening of numerous cancers (allowing for earlier diagnosis), and advancements in therapy have all contributed to improved cancer survival. Multidisciplinary cancer conferences, where medical oncologists, surgical oncologists, radiation oncologists, pathologists, radiologists, and organ-specific oncologists meet to find the best possible management for an individual patient [1-3].
Tobacco usage is the biggest cause of cancer and death mortality in the United States. Alcohol intake raises the risk of mouth, throat, esophageal, laryngeal, liver, and breast cancers. Those who drink alcohol and smoke tobacco have a substantially increased cancer risk. Breast, colon, rectum, endometrial, oesophagus, kidney, pancreas, and gallbladder cancers are all more common in obese people. Many malignancies are linked to advanced age. Cancer is diagnosed at an average age of 66 years. Substances, such as the compounds in cigarette smoke, or radiation, such as UV rays from the sun and other carcinogens, are examples of these exposures. Oncoviruses, germs, and parasites are examples of infectious agents that can cause cancer. The immune system plays a role in defending the body against cancer, a concept that is well-known because some malignancies are more common in those who are immunosuppressed [4-7].
In the case of blood cancer haemoglobin, total leukocyte count, platelet count, peripheral smear, and red cell indices are among the blood tests performed. Aspiration, flow cytometry, cytogenetics, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and molecular research of bone marrow. In the case of Lymphoma histopathological investigation, immunohistochemistry, and molecular research are performed on lymph node excision biopsy samples. Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH), serum uric acid, and kidney function tests are among the tests performed on the blood. Computerized Tomography (CT scan) and Positron Emission Tomography (PET scan) are examples of imaging tests (PET CT). In the case of Solid Tumors Histopathology and immunohistochemistry biopsies were performed. X-rays, Ultrasonography, Computerised Tomography (CT), Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI), and PET CT are examples of imaging tests. Nasopharyngoscopy, Direct and Indirect Laryngoscopy, Upper Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, Colonoscopy, and Cystoscopy are all examples of endoscopy. Alphafetoprotein (AFP), Beta Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG), Carcinoembionic Antigen (CEA), CA 125, and Prostate Specific Antigen (PSA) are all tumour indicators (PSA) [8-10].
Surgery, radiation, chemotherapy, hormonal therapy, and targeted therapy are all options for treatment. The type of treatment relies on the tumour’s location and grade, as well as the stage of the disease and the patient's overall health (performance status). Cancer genome sequencing aids in establishing the type of cancer a patient has, so that the optimal treatment can be prescribed. Two out of every five people will acquire cancer at some point in their life, according to current forecasts. The ideal, if seldom attained, goal of treatment is to completely remove the cancer without causing harm to the rest of the body (that is, to achieve cure with minimal side effects). This is often the goal in practise. Surgery can sometimes do this, but tumours' proclivity for invading nearby tissue or spreading to distant areas via microscopic metastasis limits its efficiency, while chemotherapy and radiotherapy can harm normal cells. Cancer immunotherapy refers to a variety of therapeutic approaches aimed at getting the patient's immune system to fight the tumour on its own .
Intravesical BCG immunotherapy for superficial bladder cancer and the use of interferons and other cytokines to produce an immune response in renal cell carcinoma and melanoma patients are examples of modern approaches for producing an immune response against tumours.