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Effect of Oblique Loading on Energy Absorption in Bumper System

B.S.Mashalkar 1, S.B Tuljapure 2
  1. P.G. Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, W.I.T Solapur, Maharashtra, India
  2. Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, W.I.T Solapur, Maharashtra, India
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The automobile energy-absorbing component equipped at the front end of car, is one of the most important automotive parts for crash energy absorption .The C- Chanel with two main longitudinal members will absorb most of the crash energy with a progressive folding deformation of a steel column. The longitudinal fail under progressive folding pattern which absorb shock energy. A rectangular tube with C- Chanel (Bumper System) of mild steel is analysed for its energy absorption capability using the finite element based software LS-DYNA. For preprocessing & post processing, software HYPERWORKS is used. Meshing is done using Belytschko Tsay shell element with 5 mm element size. Quasistatic Analysis are carried out in this work for axial loading. Mean crushing load is taken as a parameter for validation of the results. The analytical equations of square tubes are used for comparison of mean force. Energy absorption, Peak crushing force and deformation of the Bumper System are observed during the analysis


Energy Absorption, LS-DYNA, Mean Load, CFE.


The accidents are considered as one of the most threatening dangers in daily life. It is an unexpected event that can change people’s life radically. Frontal accidents on country roads against other cars have a high fatality rate, frontal collisions not always axially. Maharashtra has reported 62,770 accidental deaths out of 4, 00,517 such deaths in the country during the year and remained at the top with nearly one-sixth (15.7%) of total accidental deaths reported in the country.
Literature Survey:
Javad Marzbanrad[1],The amount of energy absorption per weight of steel tube is 4.5 times greater than for the aluminium tube for all 3 sections. However, the square section and then the circular section of steel tube absorbed energy per weight more than the elliptic section of the aluminium tube, respectively. Reyes,[2]. The crushing behaviour of square aluminium columns subjected to oblique loads has been studied, experimentally and numerically. The deformation mode seems to depend on both load angle and thickness. The quasi-static simulations were able to predict the local mechanisms that occurred in the experiments. The energy absorption drops drastically by introducing a load angle of 5 degree and drops additionally with increasing load angle.
Satyanarayana Kokkula,[4]. In a frontal or rear crash, the bumper beam is the primary component which undergoes damage and transfers the forces to the rest of the structure. Thus, the modern bumper beam systems should play a key part in the safety concept of an automobile, ensuring that minimal accelerations are transferred to the passenger. In general most research is based on only an axial load, while more realistic load cases are with an angle of incidence. W.J. Witteman,[5]. The improved frontal crashworthiness of cars necessitates totally new design Concepts, which take into account that the majority of collisions occur with partial frontal overlap and under off-axis load directions. Realistic crash tests with partial overlap have shown that conventional longitudinal structures are not capable of absorbing all the energy in the car front without deforming the passenger compartment. For improved frontal car safety it is necessary to design a structure that absorbs enough energy in each realistic crash situation. To protect the occupants, the passenger compartment should not be deformed and intrusion must be avoided too.
Gregory Nagel,[6]. In automobiles there is front longitudinal column which provide dual purpose i.e. energy absorption during frontal impacts and mounting vehicle auxiliary equipment such as the bumper beam. Bumper beams are one of the main structures of passenger cars that protect them from front and rear collisions. The effects of load angle on the mean load and energy absorption of the bumper system were investigated. The ability of the system to maintain its energy absorption capacity under increasing load angles was of interest from a practical point of view.


Finite element analysis is carried out to determine the performance of the rectangular tubes. Software HYPERWORKS is used for pre-processing & post processing LS DYNA is used.
A. Finite Element Model & Meshing
Model of the rectangular tube is as shown in the Fig.4. Meshing is done using Belytschko Tsay shell element. Total No. of Elements was 3760 & No. of Nodes was 3873.


In this paper, the energy capacity of bumper system under oblique load has been studied. When angle of loading increase with 100 then Energy absorption of bumper system is decreases. The CFE is maximum for 100 angle. For 00 Peak Load is maximum and for 200 Peak Load is minimum. High peak Load leads to decreased passenger safety. The reduction in energy absorption is due to global bending of tubes. Also the reduction is due to the deformation of only one tube ate start of impact.


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  2. A.Reyes, M. Langseth and O. S. Hopperstad , Structural Impact Laboratory, An experimental and numerical study on the energy absorbingcapability of aluminium extrusions under oblique loading.
  3. Abramowicz W. And Jones N., Dynamic Progressive Buckling Of Circular And Square Tubes, International Journal Of Impact Engineering, 4 (4),:243-270, 1986
  4. SatyanarayanaKokkula, Bumper beam-longitudinal system subjected to offset impact loading, PhD thesis, Norwegian University of Science andTechnology, August 2005.
  5. W.J. Witteman, Improved Vehicle Crashworthiness Design by Control of the Energy Absorption for Different Collision Situations, Doctoral dissertation, Eindhoven University of Technology, Netherlands, 1999.
  6. Gregory Nagel, Impact & energy absorption of straight & tapered rectangular tubes, Ph.D. Thesis, Queensland University of Technology,2005.
  7. Reid S. R & Reddy T.Y., Static and Dynamic Crushing Of Tapered Sheet Metal Tubes Of Rectangular Cross-Section, International Journal OfMechanical Sciences 28 (9), 623-637, 1986
  8. Accidental Deaths & Suicides in India 2013, National Crime Record Bureau, Ministry Of Home Affairs, Government Of India, June, 2014