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E-Learning Interoperability Standards Instruments For Supporting In Virtual Learning

Kanakam Siva Rama Prasad1*, Dr. Ali Akbar Babalal Bagawan2

1Research Scholar, Kalinga University, Chhattisgarh

2Research supervisor, Kalinga University, Chhattisgarh

*Corresponding Author:
Kanakam Siva Rama Prasad
Research Scholar, Kalinga University, Chhattisgarh.

Received Date: 02/7/2021; Accepted Date: 27/10/2021; Published Date: 03/11/2021

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Global Research in Computer Sciences


An e-learning authoring tools software package that being permitted us to form digital instructional content to share with learners through Learning Management System (LMS). Digital learning content includes e-courses, video lectures, quizzes, and simulations, and more. Objective in this research paper is to thoroughly review the existing standards like SCORM, AICC and WCAG as well as various e-learning authoring tools like Elucidate, Adobe Captivate, I Spring suit etc., in the competitive global market. The e-Learning process workflow and the stockholders needs and market trends which indicate the best path for achieving a global standard for e-learning activities.


E-learning, LMS, Standards, Authoring tool


An e-learning authoring tools software package that being permitted us to form digital instructional content to share with learners through Learning Management System (LMS), or over the net. Digital learning content includes e-courses, video lectures, quizzes, and simulations, and more. Some tools a square measure has centered solely on building one sort of coaching content, like video tutorials or assessments, whereas others comprise a collection of tools beneath one roof that cowl loads of tasks tutorial designers or or educators may need to deal with. E-learning programming is now and again called e-picking up composing programming. That is on the grounds that the main role of e-learning apparatuses is to creator, or make, instructive resources. There are other, related kinds of programming that oversee various parts of e-learning. For instance, more extensive learning the board frameworks (LMSs) computerizes the organization, testing, following and revealing of student progress through online courses. E-learning programming has a smaller degree: It gives the devices expected to make those online courses in any case. New innovations are changing the manner in which we create and convey advanced learning – with e-learning writing instruments being an unquestionable requirement have in your L&D toolbox. Picking the privilege e-learning creating programming for your business can be a test and will rely upon various elements including

• Technical mastery.

• How refined you might want your learning experience to be.

• The volume of e-learning content you need to create, the size of your group.

• Our spending plan and whether we require interpretation.

A writing apparatus is a piece of programming that empowers the making of advanced substance. This could be just about as straightforward as making a Microsoft Word record, or as mind boggling as a visual depiction apparatus. E-learning writing programming permits the client to produce and control sight and sound items for the substance's expected reason.

In the domain of learning and advancement, composing devices are utilized to make computerized learning content, or 'e-learning'. E-learning composing devices are most usually utilized by instructional originators in L&D groups to make preparing materials for their partners. This preparation can incorporate consistence, on boarding, hard and delicate abilities, and so forth E-learning writing programming goes from amazing and exceptionally particular, to essential.


Course writing instruments come in numerous shapes and sizes. For instance, a few learning the executives frameworks (LMS – programming used to disseminate computerized learning content) accompany worked in composing apparatuses. These are regularly exceptionally essential, and limit creators with learning configuration experience. Then again, 'independent' course writing programming are exclusively produced for the creation of advanced learning – giving instructional architects more opportunity to make superior grade, modified substance. Writing apparatuses for e-learning can likewise be desktop-based, or cloud-based.

Desktop versus cloud-based writing

It's uncommon that making an e-learning course is a performance attempt. Truth be told, the expression 'it takes a town' feels more proper. With learning originators, visual specialists, SMEs, partners and task chiefs all contribution important commitments, making content is frequently a group action.

Working with simple group working is the critical advantage of a cloud-based e-learning composing instrument. We should investigate the contrasts between desktop apparatuses, like Lucid Storyline and Adobe Enthrall, and cloud based instruments like Elucidate.

Desktop E-Learning Authoring Tool

• Programming should be downloaded and introduced onto a particular machine, which can be tedious. It must be gotten to on that machine.

• On the off chance that the writing apparatus delivers new highlights, the new form should be downloaded. This frequently comes at an extra expense.

• Programming should be downloaded and introduced onto a particular machine, which can be tedious. It must be gotten to on that machine.

• E-learning creators should store their pictures, recordings and so forth on their desktops, transferring them into the courses they're chipping away at each time.

• An e-learning course should be distributed, at that point the connection imparted to analysts to dispatch and audit.

• Audit remarks need be logged remotely – either in messages, bookkeeping pages or an elective programming – which can prompt duplication and clashing input.

• Each colleague will have their own form of the e-learning seminar on their PC.

Cloud-Based E-learning Authoring Tool

• No download or establishment required. Essentially sign in – from any area and frequently any gadget – and begin!

• New highlights and deliveries are consequently carried out without you expecting to do anything.

• Numerous patrons can chip away at an undertaking on the double with the entirety of their progressions being saved, which implies you can gather project timetables and dispose of long handovers.

• Pictures, recordings, assets and so forth can be transferred once, at that point put away in the device's resource library to be divided among all creators. With Elucidates upgraded resource library, you can mass supplant pictures with a single tick.

• Commentators can sign into the device with explicit 'survey just' authorizations to audit the course as a student would see it.

• Commentators can tap on the important piece of the page to log remarks in-situ. Creators can survey them in setting, answer, and access them again from a focal dashboard.

• One variant of reality that everybody is working into. The capacity to monitor and save renditions all through the improvement cycle.

E-Learning Standards

SCORM has advanced as the years progressed. There are at present four diverse implementable variants of SCORM. SCORM 2004 has a few unique releases, and the most recent rendition/up and coming age of SCORM is the Experience API (xAPI). Moreover, Different norms like AICC HACP and IMS Common Cartridge have their spot in the business. This page will depict these normal e-learning principles and give suggestions about selection of each.

E-learning guidelines are a bunch of regular principles that apply to content, writing programming and learning the executives frameworks (LMSs). They furnish all partners with rules for planning and creating content, sending it across stages, and guaranteeing interoperability across gadgets.


Figure 1. E-Learning Standards.

There are two fundamental kinds of e-learning principles. Courseware plan principles allude to the various parts obviously plan and advancement, and specialized guidelines allude to the arrangement of seminars on a LMS or other gateway.

Courseware Design Standards:

This incorporate instructional plan, visual plan, media, composing and appraisal principles.

Instructional Design Standards

instructional plan guidelines set up prior to building up a course assists designers with characterizing the reason, targets, and techniques and pick content, interactivities, appraisals, and criticism strategies.

Visual design standards:

alludes to graphical UI (GUI) and navigational components. Course route should be instinctive and easy to understand just as the target of visual plan principles is to guarantee plan consistency across exercises and modules.

Media standards:

guarantee consistency and similarity across the media components utilized in a course, like the screen format/size, literary components, illustrations, movement, sound and video.

Writing standards

It is consistently a decent practice to have composing rules or a style control for instructional creators and course engineers. These go about as a kind of perspective for the utilization of language, accentuation, bulleted records, truncations, abbreviations and different components of text

Assessment standards

Appraisal principles, which ought to line up with instructional destinations, characterize how you assess student.

Technical Standards

Specialized guidelines relate to the interoperability and versatility of e-learning courses across gadgets, programs and stages. The most normally utilized specialized principles are SCORM, AICC and WCAG.

SCORM represents Sharable Content Object Reference Model. It is a specialized standard created by the Advanced Distributed Learning Initiative (ADL), and it characterizes how e-learning courses interface with LMSs to work with course following. SCORM consistence makes it simple to record components such course finishing, number of times a student has gotten to a course, time taken to finish the course, evaluation scores and focuses.

AICC represents the Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee, which created specialized guidelines for PC based courses in the carriers business. In spite of the fact that the AICC guidelines' goal is same as that of SCORM, they use HTTP messages to speak with a LMS and include different advances, and its notoriety is reducing because of that intricacy.

WCAG represents Web Content Accessibility Guidelines, which the World Wide Web Consortium created to make web content more available to individuals with handicaps. Numerous nations, including the U.S., have passed laws necessitating that any material common carefully is open to all.

Various programming items, LMSs and e-learning engineers are associated with the improvement of e-learning courses. Without clear norms, organizing and coordinating substance would be an arduous and exorbitant exercise. Subsequently, it's essential to comprehend your association's e-learning principles toward the start of execution. The end objective is to guarantee that all partners are in total agreement concerning the substance and create learning objects that can be utilized flawlessly across programming projects, stages and gadgets (Table 1).

  Release Date Description Recommendations
AICC HACP Feb 1998 This norm, made by the Aviation Industry Computer-Based Training Committee (AICC), was ostensibly the main norm in the realm of e-learning innovation. HACP (HTTP-based AICC/CMI Protocol), a sub-detail of AICC, actually has some importance in the cutting edge e-learning scene. It permits substance to be facilitated on a different worker and supports HTTPs information moves, which means it can stay away from cross-area prearranging issues AICC is considered up-to-date, has limited functionality, lacks the ability   to continue monitoring and requires a multitude of tasks to remove data from the path that the server returns.
SCORM 1.0 Jan 2000 SCORM 1.0 was a draft diagram of the SCORM structure. SCORM 1.0 contained the center components that would turn into the establishment of SCORM. SCORM 1.0 is not relevant today.
SCORM 1.1 Jan 2001 SCORM 1.1 was the main genuine and implementable form of SCORM. It fleshed out SCORM 1.0 into an implementable detail and business sellers started to receive it. Still a few legacy implementations of SCORM 1.1 around.
SCORM 1.2 Oct 2001 Far reaching reception of SCORM 1.2 uncovered a few issues. SCORM 1.2 was generally excellent, yet it actually had a few ambiguities that should have been straightened out. SCORM 1.2 likewise came up short on a sequencing and route particular that permitted the substance merchant to indicate how the student was permitted to advance between SCOs SCORM 1.2 was VERY widely adopted and is still the industry workhorse.
SCORM 2004 “1st Edition” Jan 2004 SCORM 2004 (in the entirety of its flavors) incorporates exceptionally develop renditions of the substance bundling, run-time and metadata books. The pieces of SCORM 2004 that were gotten from SCORM 1.2 are VERY adult and VERY steady. The sequencing specification in the first release of SCORM 2004 had some fundamental problems and wasn’t fully implementable
SCORM 2004 2nd Edition Jul 2004 As industry began to embrace SCORM 2004, it was immediately understood that there were a few imperfections that must be settled. ADL immediately reacted by giving SCORM 2004 second Edition. SCORM 2004 2nd Edition has significant adoption, but it has not yet reached adoption levels near those of SCORM 1.2.
SCORM 2004 3rd Edition Oct 2006 Third Edition is generally a bunch of enhancements to the sequencing determination to eliminate ambiguities and fix the detail for more prominent interoperability. The huge change in Third Edition was the expansion of UI prerequisites for LMSs. SCORM 2004 3rd Edition, like 2nd Edition, has significant adoption and vendors should strive to support it
SCORM 2004 4th Edition Mar 2009 contains further disambiguation of the sequencing specification and also adds a few new features to the sequencing specification which will broaden the options available to content authors The new features of SCORM 2004 4th edition increase its usefulness dramatically, and we recommend you adopt it
IMS Common Cartridge Oct 2008 IMS delivered a particular known as Common Cartridge that has some cover with SCORM. Sadly, relations among IMS and ADL have soured due to a conflict over licensed innovation. IMS is currently situating Common Cartridge as a contender to SCORM and some have even considered it a "SCORM killer" Its appropriate to online training like run-time data communication and sequencing.
IMS LTI May 2010 It provides the ability to authenticate LMS users into the remote tool via Auth. Simple Outcomes (part of LTI) allows the remote tool to report a score back to the LMS. This is the only LMS tracking that is available in LTI LTI is supported in SCORM Cloud
The Experience API (xAPI) April 26, 2013 The Experience API, also known as Tin Can API or xAPI, is the newest e-learning standard and it solves a lot of issues that were inherent with older versions of SCORM xAPI has been adopted by over 200 products and organizations including the US Department of Defense as of October 2017
cmi5 (a companion to xAPI) June 1, 2016 Cmi 5 is a friend determination to xAPI. It gives a bunch of rules planned to accomplish interoperability in a conventional LMS climate, and utilizations the xAPI as the correspondence convention and information design. It characterizes the idea of a course structure which is proposed to be bundled and brought into a LMS. The flexibility and long term data convenience of xAPI, look into adopting cmi5

Table 1. Sample Table.

How An E-Learning Programming Diverse To A Composing Device

E-learning writing computer programs are a sweeping term that could be used to insinuate various segments inside a learning advancement stack. Inside the e-learning programming class we will find virtual items that consideration on different pieces of the e-learning. For example, E-learning Writing Instruments are used to make feasible, interfacing with e-learning courses.

E-Learning the heads Frameworks (LMSs) by then automate the association, testing, following and uncovering of these courses. The accompanying table shows the different e-learning virtual products apparatuses. The following Table 2 illustrates the various e-learning software tools in market with their strengths and weakness as well as e-learning formats.

Elucidate E-learning authoring platform High
  • HTML5, Video, SCORM (1.2, 2004), xAPI (TinCan)
  • Windows, Mac OS
  • Ready-made blueprints that will make your production 4x faster
  • Wide range of interactions and features, including rules, branches and badges
  • Out-of-the-box pages, plus the flexibility to make your own
  • Easy to use WYSIWYG interface
  • Advanced brand management to meet guidelines
  • Flexible permissions and user roles
  • Variations management to simplify working at scale
  • Sophisticated translation process
  • Outstanding support team, included as part of your package.
  • A time investment needed to utilize the full capabilities of the tool
  • Can seem expensive if you’re not producing much content, as the platform is designed for teams creating and managing e-learning at scale.
To drive down the cost business-critical training
Adobe Captivate Standalone authoring tool High
  • HTML5, SCORM, AICC, xAPI (TinCan)
  • Windows, Mac OS
  • Able to produce complex interactions (if you know how)
  • Output can be location aware (i.e., you can hook into a device’s geo-location capability)
  • Interactivity in the output can recognize common mobile-device gestures (e.g., pinch and zoom, swipe)
  • Accelerometer-based interaction types
  • Good for screen recording and simulations
  • Ability to create virtual reality (VR) learning experiences.
  • Steep learning curve with limited support
  • Limitations of a desktop tool – challenging collaboration, review and version control
  • Traditional linear style design compared to more modern e-learning authoring tools
  • Painful process to update and maintain existing content
To create high-quality content
Articulate Storyline Authoring suite Medium
  • AICC, SCORM, xAPI (TinCan)
  • Windows
  • Good flexibility and control in terms of content output
  • A commonly used tool, so designers tend to have experience
  • Very active online community
  • Reasonably powerful show me/try me/test me software simulation e-learning capability
  • Not truly mobile responsive – it just shrinks the screen
  • More traditional linear design compared to modern e-learning authoring tools
  • Collaboration and content updates can be time consuming
  • Don’t get new features and bug fixes instantly
  • Can be very expensive if you have a lot of authors and want to scale content
  • Poor screen reader functionality.
Ideal for individual users who prefer PowerPoint, with an added layer of customization
Articulate Rise Online authoring tool Low
  • AICC, SCORM, xAPI (TinCan)
  • Windows, Mac OS 
  • Easy to use with a simple and intuitive interface
  • Quick to create good-looking (relatively simple) e-learning content quickly
  • Screen casting available
  • Cloud-based – easy to update, collaborate and review
  • Content can look very generic
  • Limited customization and flexibility
  • No translation management
  • Lacking in accessibility options
  • Storage limitations in place
Produce simple e-learning courses fairly quickly
Gomo Online authoring tool Medium
  • HTML5, SCORM, xAPI (TinCan)
  • Windows, Mac OS
  • It’s a cloud-based authoring tool, offering greater flexibility than desktop tools
  • You can produce responsive e-learning output
  • They have an offline mobile app and Gomo Central, which is a cloud-based learning portal
  • Ability to provide multi-language courses
  • Layout restrictions limit your creativity and give courses a template look and feel
  • The interface is not intuitive and is tricky to use without a WYSIWYG interface
  • Customization options may not be enough for creative visuals
Suits for experienced learning designers who are not looking for advanced customization.
Lectora Standalone authoring tool Medium
  • HTML5, xAPI (TinCan), SCORM, AICC
  • Windows, MAC OS
  • Free access to E-learning Brothers graphics libraries
  • Good for screen capture and simulations
  • Has an online reviewer collaboration tool using Review Link
  • Can import Power point (although it’s worth considering if that’s a good idea!)
  • Error check feature that flags issues before you release
  • Steep learning curve with limited support
  • The interface is not user friendly, intuitive or easy to use
  • According to online reviews, Lector’s customer support is a bit slow and not very helpful
  • Many of the advanced features are not Section 508 compliant
an effective tool for producing HTML5 content
Adapt Online authoring tool Low
  • Windows, Mac OS
  • It’s free!
  • If you’re a developer, or have access to a developer, you can also use the (free) framework rather than the tool and create custom interactions/layouts, etc.
  • The authoring interface is relatively easy to get your head around
  • Responsive HTML5
  • Limited set of interactions compared to what the Adapt framework is capable of
  • “Blocky” layout that leads to a lot of content looking generic
  • It’s not cloud-based and can take a while to install
To design bespoke HTML5 authoring through back-end design.
DominKnow Online authoring tool High
  • SCORM, xAPI, AICC, Web  
  • Windows, Mac OS
  • Enables collaborative authoring and review; they also have user roles (but not as extensive as Elucidate, for example)
  • Strong responsive design capabilities
  • They have a wide range of “Actions” that give you flexibility in creating page types
  • Power point import
  • One of the few tools to offer a product tour to help new users navigate the tool
  • The interface isn’t particularly intuitive, so getting up to speed can be quite slow
  • The Help documentation is sometimes misleading or incomplete
  • Not great at Gamification
  • The customizable theme settings are a bit restrictive
Used on responsive screen capture and software simulation.
Easy generator Online authoring tool Low
  • SCORM, xAPI (TinCan), LTI 
  • Windows, Mac OS
  • Good for authors who are just starting out building e-learning content – no coding necessary!
  • Mobile-friendly responsive design features
  • Ability to import Powerpoint.
  • Not every question type and interaction available is fully optimized for multiple devices
  • Limited features – although the team is also open to hear suggestions and release updates based on client needs
  • Restrictions on question types/quizzes to certain pricing plans
  • A word limit on many of the long-form questions
  • Only compatible with SCORM 1.2
Authoring software designed for small teams who need to produce simple content, fast
i Spring Suite Authoring suite Medium
  • HTML5, Video, SCORM, xAPI (TinCan), cmi5
  • Windows
  • PowerPoint integration
  • Low learning curve (if experienced in PP)
  • Simple interface
  • Video editing
  • Great for Windows users
  • Not available for Mac users (without other software)
  • Can’t create slide-based courses without PowerPoint
  • Not fully cloud-based
  • Requires installation
  • Basic output
Desktop PowerPoint-based tool that’s a great option for novice learning designers who don’t need to bother about updating content regularly
Evolve Online authoring tool Medium
  • HTML5, SCORM 1.2/2004, Web, Offline
  • Windows
  • Novel interaction with types not seen in some other tools
  • Pay for the time you’re using rather than for a full year
  • Easy and simple collaborative authoring
  • Not available for Mac users (without other software)
  • Can’t create slide-based courses without PowerPoint
  • Not fully cloud-based
  • Requires installation
  • Basic output
Built for teams who need to collaborate together
Camtasia Video authoring software Medium
  • SCORM 1.2/2004, Web, Offline
  • Windows
  • IOS app
  • Great for screen capture and video editing
  • Ability to save and re-use presets and templates
  • PowerPoint integration
  • iOS capture
  • Not available for Mac users (without other software)
  • Can’t create slide-based courses without PowerPoint
  • Not fully cloud-based
  • Requires installation
  • Basic output
Video editing suite most commonly used for screen recordings, tutorials or product demos.

Table 2. E-Learning Software Tools.


It is imperative to underline the way that learning innovation guidelines execute a specific degree of interoperability. To accomplish the smooth co-activity of all e-learning parts we ought to force norms in each technique. Normalization advisory groups ought to characterize guidelines that cover all parts of the instructive system and don't cover one another. A significant grievance about e-learning principles is that items asserting conformance don't cooperate without further tweaking. This converts into lost time and costly assistance commitment. Because of this test, there is an expanding accentuation on creating conformance tests and certificate programs. It is important that e-learning norms should be embraced by everybody with no customization or adjustment.

The guide to accomplish normalization of e-learning innovations contains the accompanying steps:

First we should outline the e-learning measure overall. We should characterize the tasks remembered for the e-learning measure, the data traded (input, results and so forth) In this progression we ought to balance out the current practices and record the current guidelines and requirements.

The subsequent advance is to find the principle normalization bodies and have them work for the basic point. Worldwide sheets

should settle on the principles by considering the requirements revealed by the public

The third step concerns the insightful meaning of details. The details should cover all potential necessities of e-learning frameworks and keep away from redundancies.

The last advance includes the scattering of details and their adjustment into guidelines. Whenever they are characterized, the particulars are conveyed to the local area for testing. Extra prerequisites or changes are shrouded in this progression. When affirmed, the determinations become guidelines.

Glossary of E-Learning Standards

ADL—Advanced Distributed Learning initiative

AICC—Aviation Industry CBT Committee

ALIC—Advanced Learning Infrastructure Consortium

ANSI—American National Standards Institute

ARIADNE—Alliance of Remote Instructional and Distribution Networks for Europe

CBT—Computer-Based Training

CDLSC—Chinese Distant Learning Standards Committee

CEN—European Committee for Standardization

CLEO—Customized Learning Experiences Online

CMI—Computer Managed Instruction

EdNA—Education Network Australia

IEEE—Institute of Electrical and Electronic Engineers

IEC—International Electro technical Commission

ILT—Instructor-Led Training

EML—Educational Modeling Language

HR-XML—Human Resource XML Consortium

IMS—IMS Global Learning Consortium

ISO—International Organization for Standards

ISSS—Information Society Standardization System

JTC1—Joint Technical Committee 1

LCMS—Learning Content Management System

LTSC—Learning Technology Standards Committee

LIP—Learner Information Package

LMS—Learning Management System

LOM—Learning Object Metadata

QTI—Question and Test Interoperability

SCORM—Shareable Content Object Reference Model

SIIA—Software and Information Industry Association

SIF—Schools Interoperability Framework

SOAP—Simple Object Access Protocol

WBT—Web-Based Training

WSLT—Workshop on Learning Technology

W3C—World Wide Web Consortium

XML—Extensible Markup Language.