Department of Pharmacy, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Received: 03-Nov-2022, Manuscript No. JHCP-22-82053; Editor assigned: 07-Nov -2022, Pre QC No. JHCP-22-82053 (PQ); Reviewed: 21-Nov-2022, QC No. JHCP-22-82053; Revised: 28-Nov -2022, Manuscript No. JHCP-22-82053 (R); Published: 05-Dec-2022, DOI: 10.4172/2347-226X.8.6.002.
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Thyroid refers to a bodily condition where the hormone is functioning properly. There are different thyroid disorders such as hyperthyroidism, hypothyroidism, thyroiditis, goitre, thyroid nodules, and thyroid cancer. The autoimmune condition Graves' disease is the most prevalent cause of hyperthyroidism, which is characterized by increased thyroid hormone production. Iodine deficiency is the most common cause of hypothyroidism, which is defined by an inadequate release of thyroid hormones.
At 3–4 weeks of pregnancy, the thyroid gland begins to form at the base of the tongue in the floor of the pharynx. From that, it descends in front of the pharyngeal gut and gradually migrates to the base of the neck over the coming few weeks. The thyroglossal duct, a tiny canal that connects the thyroid to the tongue during migration, remains in place. The thyroglossal duct degenerates around the end of the fifth week, and the detached thyroid migrates to its final position over the next two weeks.
The thyroid gland develops as an epithelial proliferation in the floor of the pharynx at the base of the tongue between the tuberculum impar and the copula linguae during 3–4 weeks of gestation. The hypopharyngeal prominence quickly engulfs the copula, which is later marked by the foramen cecum. The thyroid then passes via the thyroglossal duct and descends in front of the pharyngeal gut as a bilobed diverticulum. It moves toward the base of the neck throughout the coming weeks, passing in front of the hyoid bone. The thyroglossal duct, a tiny canal that connects the thyroid to the tongue during migration, remains in place.
Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone (TRH) and Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone (TSH) are first released by the hypothalamus and pituitary of the growing embryo (TSH). First TSH measurements are made at 11 weeks. Thyroxine (T4) production reaches a clinically significant and self-sufficient level by 18–20 weeks. Till 30 weeks, the foetal triiodothyronine (T3) level is low (less than 15 ng/dL), then it rises to 50 ng/dL at term. To prevent neurodevelopmental problems brought on by maternal hypothyroidism, the foetus must be self-sufficient in thyroid hormones. Iodine needs to be present in appropriate amounts for proper neurodevelopment.