Department of Computer Systems Engineering, Bahria University, Nawabshah 6748, Pakistan
Received: 01-Jun-2022, Manuscript No. GRCS-22-68843; Editor assigned: 06-Jun-2022, PreQC No. GRCS-22-68843 (PQ); Reviewed: 23-June-2022, QC No. GRCS-22-68843; Revised: 01-Jul-2022, Manuscript No. GRCS-22-68843 (R); Published: 08-Jul-2022, DOI:10.4172/2229-371X.13.3.004
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Graphics are visual pictures or designs on a surface, such as a wall, canvas, screen, paper, or stone, to inform, illustrate, or amuse. The term "graphics" comes from the Ancient Greek word "graphikós," which means "pertaining to drawing, painting, writing, etc." In modern usage, it refers to a visual representation of data, such as that used in software for education and entertainment, design and manufacturing, typesetting, and the graphic arts. Computer graphics refers to images generated by a computer.
Examples include pictures, sketches, line art, graphs from mathematics, charts, diagrams, typography, numbers, symbols, geometric patterns, engineering drawings, or other visuals. Often, text, art, and colour are combined in graphics. The deliberate selection, production, or arrangement of typography alone may constitute graphic design, as in a brochure, flyer, poster, website, or book.
Among the earliest graphics in which anthropologists studied prehistoric periods were aware of include cave paintings and markings on stones, bone, ivory, and antlers, which were created between 40,000 and 10,000 B.C. or earlier during the Early Ancient period. It was discovered that many of these kept track of astronomical, seasonal, and chronological information. Engraved stone tablets and ceramic cylinder seals from over 6,000 years ago, which marked the start of the historical periods and the keeping of records for accounting and inventory purposes, are some of the earliest images and drawings that are known to modern society. These records are older than those from Egypt, and the Egyptians utilized papyrus, wood, and slabs of limestone to design the construction of the pyramids. 600 to 250 B.C.
One way that photography differs from other kinds of graphics is that, in theory, a photographer simply captures a single instant in reality with what appears to be no interpretation. A photographer can, however, select the field of view and angle as well as employ other strategies, such as different lenses to select the perspective or filters to alter the colors. Digital photography has recently made it possible to perform an infinite number of quick but effective modifications. There was debate over images of staged scenarios that were marketed as "real life" even in the early days of photography (especially in war photography, where it can be very difficult to record the original events).
Computer graphics can be divided into two categories: raster graphics, where each pixel is individually defined (like in a digital photograph), and vector graphics, where mathematical formulas are used to design lines and forms, which are then translated into the graphic at the viewer's end. The use of vectors produces graphics that are infinitely sharp and frequently results in lesser files, but when complicated, like vectors, they may have bigger file sizes than a raster equivalent and take longer to render.
The Whirlwind I computer at MIT was equipped with the first computer-driven display in 1950, which produced basic images. MIT's TX-0 and TX-2 interactive computing systems came next, stoking interest in computer graphics in the late 1950s. Ivan Sutherland created the groundbreaking application Sketchpad in 1962.
Internet speeds improved in the 1990s, and the first image-viewing web browser, Mosaic, was introduced. Small visuals like banners, ads, and navigation buttons started to appear on websites in the GIF format. In addition to GIFs, modern web browsers can now display JPEG, PNG, and increasingly SVG pictures on online pages. The ability to display vector graphics that are clear at any size has been made feasible thanks to SVG and, to a lesser extent, VML, support in some contemporary web browsers. Web browsers can now show animated, interactive, and 3-D visuals that are stored in file formats like SWF and X3D thanks to plugins.