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Introduction to Biomolecules

Josh Parks*

Department of Food Science and Technology, University of the Sargodha, Punjab 40100, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:
Josh Parks
Department of Food Science and Technology,
University of the Sargodha,
Punjab 40100,
E-mail: [email protected]

Received:  21-Jan-2022, Manuscript No. JMB-22-52172; Editor assigned: 24-Jan-2022, PreQC No. JMB-22-52172(PQ); Reviewed: 07-Feb-2022, QC No. JMB-22-52172; Accepted: 09-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. JMB-22-52172(A); Published: 16-Feb-2022, DOI: 10.4172/2320-3528.11.1.003

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About The Study

A Biomolecule, also known as a biological molecule, is a broad term for molecules found in organisms that are required for one or more typical biological processes, such as cell division, morphogenesis, or development. Large macromolecules (or polyamines) such as proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, and nucleic acids are examples of biomolecules, as are small molecules such as primary metabolites, secondary metabolites, and natural products. A biological material is a more general term for this type of material. Biomolecules are an important component of living organisms; these biomolecules are often endogenous, meaning they are produced within the organism.


Ribosomes ; Monomers; DNA replication ; Molecular biology

However, organisms usually require exogenous biomolecules, such as certain nutrients, to survive. Biology, as well as its subfields of biochemistry and molecular biology, investigates biomolecules and their reactions. The uniformity of specific types of molecules (biomolecules) and certain metabolic pathways is an invariant feature among the wide diversity of life forms; thus, these biomolecules and metabolic pathways are referred to as "biochemical universals “or "theory of material unity of living beings," a unifying concept in biology, along with cell theory and evolution theory. Nucleosides are molecules that are formed by joining a nucleobase to a ribose or deoxyribose ring. Cytidine (C), Uridine (U), Adenosine (A), Guanosine (G), and Thymidine (T) are a few examples. Nucleosides can be phosphorylated in the cell by specific kinases, resulting in nucleotides. DNA and RNA are both polymers, meaning they are long, linear molecules assembled by polymerase enzymes from repeating structural units, or monomers, of mononucleotides. DNA uses the deoxynucleotides C, G, A, and T, whereas RNA uses the ribonucleotides C, G, A, and U (which have an extra hydroxyl (OH) group on the pentose ring). Modified bases are fairly common (for example, with methyl groups on the base ring), as found in ribosomal RNA or transfer RNAs, or for distinguishing between new and old DNA strands. The well-known double helix formed by Watson-Crick base-pairing of C with G and A with T dominates DNA structure. This is known as B-form DNA, and it is the most common and preferred state of DNA; its highly specific and stable base-pairing is the fundamental basis of reliable genetic information storage. DNA can occur as single strands (which must often be stabilized by single-strand binding proteins), A-form or Z-form helices or in more complex 3D structures such as the crossover at bolded junctions during DNA replication. RNA, on the other hand, forms large and complex 3D tertiary structures resembling proteins, as well as the loose single strands with locally folded regions that make up messenger RNA molecules. Many stretches of A-form double helix are connected into distinct 3D arrangements by single-stranded loops, bulges, and junctions in these RNA structures. tRNA, ribosomes, ribozymes, and rib switches are a few examples. The fact that the RNA backbone has less local flexibility than DNA but a large set of distinct conformations, owing to both positive and negative interactions of the extra OH on the ribose, facilitates the formation of these complex structures. The primary structure of a protein is the specific sequence of amino acids that form that protein.


This sequence is determined by the individual's genetic make-up. It specifies the order of side-chain groups along the "backbone" of a linear polypeptide. Proteins have two types of well-classified, frequently occurring local structure elements defined by a specific pattern of hydrogen bonds along the backbone: alpha helix and beta sheet. Their number and arrangement is referred to as the protein's secondary structure. The backbone CO group (carbonyl) of one amino acid residue and the backbone NH group (amide) of the i+4 residue form regular spirals that are stabilized by hydrogen bonds.

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