ISSN: 2319-9865

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Mental Health: Neurological Diseases

Rekha M*

Department of Pharmacy, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, India

Corresponding Author:
Rekha M
Department of Pharmacy, Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, India
E-mail: [email protected]

Received Date: 08/02/2021; Accepted Date: 19/02/2021; Published Date: 26/02/2021

Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Medical and Health Sciences


Psychosocial stress; Mental disorder; Psychotherapy; Manic depression


The nervous system is made up of the cortex, spinal cord, and neurons. They have complete control of the body's functions as they work together. When a part of your nervous system malfunctions, you can have difficulty moving, walking, chewing, breathing, or understanding. You may also have issues with memory, perception, or mood [1].

The primary and peripheral nervous systems are affected by neurological conditions. To put it another way, the cortex, spinal cord, cranial nerves, peripheral nerves, nerve roots, autonomic nervous system, neuromuscular junction, and muscles are all part of the nervous system. Epilepsy, Alzheimer's syndrome, and other dementias, cerebrovascular conditions such as stroke, migraine, and other headache disorders, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, neuroinfections, brain tumours, traumatic nervous system disorders caused by head injuries, and neurological disorders caused by malnutrition are all examples among these disorders [2].

Many bacterial, fungal and parasitic infections may damage the nervous system, including tuberculosis, Neisseria meningitides, and the Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV), Enteroviruses, West Nile Virus, and Zika. Neurological symptoms may arise as a result of the infection or as a result of an immune response.

Neurological illnesses concern hundreds of millions of people around the world. Every year, more than 6 million people die as a result of a stroke; over 80% of these deaths occur in low- and middle-income countries. Epilepsy affects more than 50 million people worldwide. Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent cause of dementia, accounting for 60–70% of cases. There are an estimated 47.5 million individuals worldwide with dementia, with 7.7 million new cases per year. Migraine affects more than 10% of the world's population [3].

Common Neurological Diseases and How to Identify

Understanding the signs of neurological conditions is vital because it will lead to you seeking immediate help, which can lead to a better diagnosis and care.

As discussed earlier every year, millions of people are afflicted by neurological diseases globally, but many of them are unaware that they have one? Headache, strokes, and dementia are among them. Knowing your signs will help you get the right diagnosis and treatment [4].


Pain in head is one of the most prevalent brain conditions, and they come in many forms, including migraines, cluster headaches, and stress headaches. When headaches develop often, it's a smart idea to see a doctor because they may be a precursor of something more serious.

The following are some of the most important causes of chronic headaches:

• Increased blood pressures

• Different kind of infections including viral and other contagious diseases

• Inflammation of blood vessels

Tumors and cancers


Stroke occurs when the arteries leading to and inside the brain become blocked, causing damage to the brain. A stroke is impossible to predict, but there are symptoms that you might be getting one, such as sudden:

• Vision is hazy

• Confusion, difficulty in speaking, or comprehension

• Dizziness or a sense of being off balance

• Face, arm, or leg numbness or weakness, particularly on one side of the body

• Headache that is serious


Fits/Seizures are abnormalities in the electrical function of the brain that cause around one of every 100 people in the United States. Seizure signs and symptoms differ based on the severity of the seizure, but the following are the most common:

• Fear, anxiety, or cognitive or emotional symptoms

• Consciousness or memory loss

• Temporary perplexity

• Jerking motions of the arms and legs that are uncontrollable

Dementia/Memory loss

Dementia is a catch-all term for a group of disorders, including Alzheimer's, that can cause the brain to malfunction. Dementia, which becomes more common when you get older, causes a steady deterioration of brain tissue, which can affect:

• Emotions

• Behavior

• Thinking

• Memory

• Perceptions

Parkinson's disease

Parkinson's disease is a movement disorder that affects the nervous system. It mostly affects people above the age of 60, and symptoms steadily worsen over time. Symptoms that are common include:

• Constipation can strike at any time during Parkinson's disease, often decades before motor signs appear.

• Stiffness of the muscles: This can affect the whole body; in some situations, swinging your arms while walking can be tough.

• Reduced odour: The majority of individuals with Parkinson's disease lose their sense of smell to an extent.

• Face that is stiff: Your face can tend to display little to no emotion, particularly in the early stages of Parkinson's disease.

• Changes in speech: Your voice can become hushed or slurred.

Tremor is a form of tremor that occurs while it usually begins in the hands or fingertips.