Parasitology: An Overview.
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Fakir Mohan University, Odisha, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Kadambini Tripathy
Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Fakir Mohan University, Balasore-756001, Odisha, India
E-mail ID: [email protected]
Received date: 20 February 2015 Accepted date: 20 March 2015 Published date: 25 March 2015
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Parasitology is the study of parasites and the relationship to their host. It encompasses several approaches to the study of parasitic organisms. The aim of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview on parasitology, various parasitic infection and discussion about probiotics for the control of parasites.
Bacteria, Diseases, Infection, Pathogen
The field of parasitology adds to the elucidation of examples and procedures in ecology, that are of essential significance over the biosphere, which leads to thorough understanding of biodiversity and varied responses to worldwide change. Foundations from taxonomic and orderly data drive biodiversity disclosure and foster significant base and joining of exploration projects . Morphological, physiological, behavioral, life-history, and sub-atomic information can be incorporated to find and depict worldwide parasite assorted qualities, in a convenient way. In completely joining parasitology in policies for adaptation to worldwide change, parasites and their hosts ought to be filed and mulled over inside of a recently rising theoretical universe, grasping the characteristic unpredictability of host-parasite frameworks and enhanced informative energy to comprehend biodiversity now and in future .
Parasitic ailments cause imperative misfortunes openly and veterinary wellbeing around globe. Because of the complexity of parasites and the unpredictable association with their hosts, improvement of fruitful apparatuses to battle parasites has been exceptionally constrained to date. The developing data on individual parasite genomes is presently permitting the utilization of a more extensive scope of potential methodologies to increase more profound bits of knowledge into the host-parasite relationship and has expanded the conceivable outcomes to create sub-atomic based apparatuses in the field of parasitology [3-5].
Plasmodium falciparum is a phylum that incorporates life forms with the organelle called an apicoplast and an apical complex and responsible for 95% of the passings created by intestinal sickness and is the most deadly of all the human malaria parasites [6,7]. Plasmodium falciparum is discovered to be remarkable contrasted with the other malaria parasites in light of the fact that it has the capacity hold fast to the endothelial cells of the capillaries. Plasmodium falciparum is known to cause malignant malaria which implies that each 42-47 hours you experience a cycle of fevers. It is distinctive because of sickle shape that its gametocytes have .
The differences and predominance of malaria parasites of the genera Plasmodium and Haemoproteus were resolved in the all-inclusive threatened aquatic Warbler Acrocephalus paludicola [9,10]. Malaria parasites are small scale organic entities that have a place with the sort Plasmodium. There are more than 100 types of Plasmodium, can contaminate numerous creature species, for example, reptiles, feathered creatures, and different warm blooded animals . Four types of Plasmodium have long been perceived to contaminate people in nature. What's more there is one animal categories that normally taints macaques which has as of late been perceived to be a reason for zoonotic intestinal sickness in people [12-14].
The malaria parasite develops both in human and in the female Anopheles mosquitoes. The size and hereditary complexity of the parasite imply that every contamination presents a huge number of antigens to the human immune system [15-17]. The parasite likewise changes through a few life stages even while in the human host, exhibiting distinctive antigens at diverse phases of its life cycle. Understanding which of these can be a helpful focus for immunization improvement has been convoluted. Likewise, the parasite has built up a progression of procedures that permit it to confound, conceal, and mislead the human invulnerable framework [18-20].
Probiotics for the Control of Parasites
Probiotics are characterized as live organism. Their effectiveness was shown for the treatment of gastrointestinal issue, respiratory diseases, and hypersensitive side effects, yet their utilization is generally constrained to bacterial and viral sicknesses. During the most recent decade, probiotics as means for the control of parasite contaminations were accounted for covering fundamentally intestinal infections additionally some nongut diseases that are all of human and veterinary significance [21,22].
Probiotics can execute or repress pathogens via strain-particular mechanisms depending on rivalry, atom emission, and/or resistant actuation . The majority of the depicted cooperations infer a prokaryotic pathogen that colonizes the same gut compartment. As of late, a few studies have examined whether probiotics could control the multiplication of eukaryotic pathogens, either in the gut as the probiotic, or in an alternate compartment [24-26].
Cryptosporidium is an intestinal pathogen having a place with the Alveolata bunch that can bring about destroying gastrointestinal contamination in immunosuppressed people. In the earth, Cryptosporidium is found as oocyst, the infective structure, in water. After ingestion, the oocysts go through the gut lumen to the small digestive system, where they discharge the motile sporozoites that follow and attack the epithelial gastrointestinal cells [27-29]. Microvilli centrally get disturbed by sporozoites and infiltrate the host cells to set up their intracellular corner, where they stay in an extracytoplasmic vacuole. After parasite replication and avoidance, oocysts are created and discharged in the faeces [30,31].
Regardless of a genuine danger of waterborne episodes of cryptosporidiosis, there is no totally effective treatment available. The most commonly utilized medications are just compelling in mix with resistant restoring agents . Immunocompetent grown-up mice are equipped for controlling Cryptosporidium parvum diseases, while IFN- knockout and serious consolidated immuno lack mice are helpless to this parasite. Other than safety, the intestinal greenery can likewise impact imperviousness to Cryptosporidium: without germ grown-up immunocompetent mice have an expanded weakness to Cryptosporidium while SCID mice, colonized with a characterized anaerobic verdure, have the capacity to resist contamination [33-35].
Giardia lamblia is an intestinal pathogenic protozoan parasite belongs in with the Diplomonad bunch. In people, as meager as ten naturally safe growths are adequate to start a disease. The growths free the motile and replicative structures known as trophozoïtes amid their gastrointestinal travel [36,37]. These structures multiply in the gut lumen, where they hold fast to the epithelium. This stage is connected with the side effects of the ailment: watery the runs, epigastric torment, queasiness, regurgitating, and weight reduction normally show up 6-15 days after blister ingestion, yet 50% of the contaminations stay asymptomatic [38-40]. Medications are in light of metronidazole and nitroimidazole, however diseases might likewise resolve suddenly. White blood cells, neutrophiles, macrophages and additionally IgM, IgG, and IgA antibodies are real players of the insusceptible reaction fundamental for determination of giardiasis. Immune system microorganism cytokines might likewise affect generation and arrival of antigiardial defensins [41,42]. A few elements, for example, normal variable immunodeficiency (hypogammaglobulinemy) or changed gut microflora, seem to incline to Giardia infection .
Parasitic roundworms can live on or in people where they can bring about a mixture of health issues. Most parasitic roundworm eggs or hatchlings are found in the dirt and enter the human body when a man lifts them up on the hands and after that exchanges them to the mouth. The eggs or hatchlings additionally can enter the human body specifically through the skin [44-47].
Immunostimulants can prompt nonspecific resistance against parasites. Humans can be tainted by eating contaminated sustenance. Worms develop in the digestive tract of a transitional host, for example, pig, enter the blood and the lymphatic framework and encyst in striated muscles [48-50]. The movement of hatchlings reasons host tissue harms and provocative responses with confusions, which may prompt demise. The productivity of medicines in light of mebendazole or albendazole is variable. Both reasonable and dead L. casei ATCC7469 were administrated orally to NIH mice and instigated a defensive reaction with a noteworthy lessening of both grown-up worms and hatchlings per gram of muscle [51-55]. Treatment with society supernatant of L. casei was less productive yet at the same time demonstrated a huge impact.
Toxocara canis is an intestinal ascarid that contaminates basically mutts. People and rodents are paratenic hosts that get to be contaminated by ingesting eggs, either on tainted nourishment or by geophagy. Ingested eggs bring forth and spread out all through the body, prompting side effects connected with human toxocariasis [56,60]. It is reported the astounding impact of E. faecalis CECT 7121 on T. canis hatchlings improvement in N: NIH-Swiss mice: a 90% decrease of the quantity of hatchlings in liver and lungs was measured 48 h after contamination with embryonated egg [61-65].
Thus, Ascaris suum, which ordinarily taints pigs, can likewise be transmitted to people, where the moving hatchlings produce liver injuries and eosinophilic pneumonitis [66,67]. Probiotic treatment of sows amid pregnancy and of their piglets after conception with Bifidobacterium lactis constrict the hindrance of glucose ingestion in the small digestive system impelled by A. suum contamination, a sign connected with the parasite ejection from the jejunum [68-70].
Schistosoma mansoni, a blood-abiding trematode worm, is the essential causative specialists of bilharziosis. Human contamination is started amid water presentation to the free-swimming fork-tailed cercariae [71-73]. After development in skin, hatchlings move through the skin, blood, lungs, and liver lastly achieve the mesenteric venous plexus. A percentage of the eggs saved by the female grown-ups go through the venule dividers, cross the intestinal mucosa, and are cleared with the fecal material [74-76]. Eggs then taint their moderate snail host, Biomphalaria glabrata. Zymomonas mobilis, a bacterium essentially known for its bioethanol-creating capacities and initially disengaged from fermented drinks, was accounted for to give more than 60% security from the contamination of S. mansoni, in mice, when orally administrated as a therapeutic treatment [77-80].
Helminths are flawlessly adapted to avoiding and modulating the mammalian resistant reaction; and interestingly comparable avoidance systems can be shared among indirectly related species. The admonition of a live parasite methodology is just excessively clear; regardless of the fact that the picked parasite is not able to beneficially contaminate the host persistent, similar to the case with T. suis, there may even now be some unfriendly reactions, especially when patients are tested in conjunction with immunosuppressants, or in generally immunosuppressed people [81-85]. Specifically, parasite-mediated immunomodulation may trade off the opposition to tumor responsiveness of the patient. Cleanliness Hypothesis is that the rising rate of provocative issue is because of a lack of disease amid outset, which thusly tunes the resistant reaction in resulting adulthood to a less pathogenic methodology [86,87].
This being the situation, therapeutic dosing of a helminth to alleviate fulminant provocative malady in a grown-up may be generally insufficient. The understanding's insusceptible collection, both versatile and natural, has as of now been formed by the nonappearance of parasite antigens, and is liable to just moderately minor annoyances . A drawn out treatment regimen, disease with a constricted host-particular helminth, or introduction amid the assumed discriminating time of outset may all conceivably enhance the adequacy of such a methodology. In some not very removed futurity, there may come a day when we all take 'helminth supplements' alongside our Omega 3 unsaturated fats, vitamins, and whatever else goes to make up an advanced balanced diet [89,90].
For other eukaryotic pathogens, the effects of probiotics have generally been represented by one investigation bundle that displayed the potential effect of L. casei ATCC 7469 in the protection of nongut parasites, for instance, Babesia, Plasmodium, or Trypanosoma . (Oral or intraperitoneal medicines of L. casei ATCC 7469 in Babesia microti (Gray strain) contaminated mice essentially lessened parasitemia, conceivably through an incitement of the characteristic insusceptible framework. The defensive reaction was enhanced when the lactobacilli were regulated 3 days prior or around the same time of parasite contamination versus 7 days prior [92,93]. Since in B. bovis diseases, the early intrinsic reaction has been ascribed to ahead of schedule appearance of IL-12 and -IFN transcripts in the spleen, it has been recommended that L. casei could upgrade this defensive reaction. The sub-atomic instrument is at present under scrutiny, through the testing of low and high sub-atomic parts segregated from lactobacilli for their ability to impel early defensive safe reaction against B. microti [94,95].
L. casei ATCC 7469 likewise presented a defensive impact against the intestinal sickness parasite Plasmodium chabaudi AS in NIH mice. L. casei improved a nonspecific imperviousness to P. chabaudi, with longer prepatent periods (5 days versus 4 days in control mice), shorter patent periods (8 days versus 11 days in control mice), joined by a lessening in parasitemia and reasonability of parasites recouped from the spleen of treated mice [96-98]. Nitric oxide focus was expanded (500% to 900%) in serum of L. casei-treated mice and was proposed to present a defensive impact upon the plasmodial contamination [99,100].
The overdispersion idea developed as a quantitative appraisal for the dissemination of specific parasites inside of host populaces. Numerical displaying of parasite populations science and overdispersion were in charge of adding to a creative strategy for translating the dynamic way of host–parasite cooperations. Other new ideas and the utilization of some more seasoned ones, notwithstanding displaying and scattering, included codification of parasite populace and group science, rivalry, colonization systems, host and webpage specificity, developing irresistible ailment, and sustenance web biology. Parasitic contaminations, a large number of which are zoonotic however can't genuinely be considered as developing, must ensure that they hold their place under the one health roof.
- Muyiwa Oyebola K, Emmanuel Idowu T, Yetunde Olukosi A, Chimere Agomo O, Olusola Ajibaye O, et al. Genetic Diversity and Complexity of Plasmodium Falciparum Infections in Lagos, Nigeria. J Bacteriol Parasitol. 2014;5:196.
- Olusegun AF, Richard O, Luke D, Kyle B, Richard W, et al. Co-Endemicity of Plasmodium falciparum and HIV-Infections in Treated Patients is Uncorrelated in Benin City, Nigeria. J Bacteriol Parasitol. 2013;4:176.
- Ebrahimzadeh A, Gharaei A, Saryazdi K. Allelic Diversity of Polymorphic AMA-1 (Apical Membrane Antigen 1) Vaccine Candidate Antigen of Plasmodium falciparum in Two Population of Imported and Indigenous Cases in South-East of Iran using Nested-PCR and RFLP. J Trop Dis. 2014;2:149.
- Ndiaye M, Faye B, Tine R, Ndiaye JL, Sylla K, et al. Genetic Analysis of Erythrocyte Binding Antigen 175 (EBA-175), Apical Membrane Antigen (AMA-1) and Merozoite Surface Protein 3 (MSP-3) Allelic Types in Plasmodium Falciparum Isolates From Rural Area in Senegal. Malar Chemoth Cont Elimination. 2014;3:113.
- Adel E, Tahareh D. Genetic Diversity of Variable Region Block 2 in the Merozoite Surface Protein-1 (MSP1) in Plasmodium falciparum Field Isolates from South-East of Iran. Malar Chemoth Cont Elimination. 2014;3:124.
- Oyebola MK, Idowu TE, Olukosi AY, Agomo CO, Ajibaye OO, et al. Genetic Diversity and Complexity of Plasmodium Falciparum Infections in Lagos, Nigeria. J Bacteriol Parasitol. 2014; 5:196.
- Chen LY. Does Plasmodium falciparum have an Achilles' Heel? Malar Chemoth Cont Elimination. 2014;3:114.
- Pandeti S, Gunjan S, Paidipelli S, Tripathi R, Tadigoppula N (2014) Anti-malarial Activity of New Emodin Derivatives against Plasmodium falciparum Chloroquine Resistant Strain. Nat Prod Chem Res. 2014;2:150.
- Akotet BMK, Nkare CA, Mbouoronde OC, Mawili-Mboumba DP. Performances of SD Bioline Malaria Ag-P.F/Pan RDT for the Diagnosis of Malaria in Febrile Patients Living In Gabon, Central Africa. Malar Chemoth Cont Elimination 3:125.
- Tulara NK. Concurrent Infection with Malaria, Dengue and Hepatitis A Virus together. J Trop Dis 2015;3:155.
- Mohan K, Omar BJ, Singh RD. Clinical Presentation and Management of Neonatal Malaria: A Review. Malar Chemoth Cont Elimination. 2014;3:126.
- Chakrabortya K, Chattopadhyayb A, Chakrabarti A, Acharyad T, Dasguptae AK. A Combined Algorithm for Malaria Detection from Thick Smear Blood Slides. J Health Med Informat. 2015;6: 179.
- Francis U, Isaac Z, Yakubu A, Enosakhare A, Felix E. Haematological Parameters of Malaria Infected Patients in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, Nigeria. J Hematol Thrombo Dis. 2014;2:171.
- Oyedeji OA. Spontaneous Expulsion through the Anus of Ascaris Lumbricoides in a Child with Cerebral Malaria. J Bacteriol Parasitol. 2014;5:207.
- Aghahowa SE, Obianwu HO, Isah AO. Tolerabilities of Artemisinin-Based Combination Drugs among Patients with Uncomplicated Malaria in a Tertiary Institution Benin City, Nigeria. Clin Pharmacol Biopharm. 2014; 3:123.
- Goel A, Mangla A, Singh T. Changing Pattern of Vivax Malaria. Pediat Therapeut. 2014;4:e124.
- Abe AF, Olusi TA. Seroprevalence of Malaria Parasite Infection among Pregnant Women Attending Two Tertiary Health Facilities in Akure Ondo State Nigeria. J Bacteriol Parasitol. 2014; 5:194.
- Cheepsattayakorn A, Cheepsattayakorn R. Malaria with Pulmonary Complications. Poult Fish Wildl Sci. 2014;2:120.
- Dyke KV.A possible new approach for malaria treatment combining selective nutrition and resistance–proof anti-malarial drugs. J Blood Disorders Transf. 2014;5:8.
- Vyas N, Prakash S, Dua KK. Metabolites of Metarhizium anisopliae against Malaria Vectors and Non Target Organisms. Entomol Ornithol Herpetol. 2015;4:147.
- Akbar Nikkhah. Living Gut Health Improvement through Time-Managing Nutrient Assimilation: An Evolutionary ProbioticJ Prob Health. 2015;3:e114.
- Nikkhah A. Running as a Postmodern Probiotic to Optimize Gut Physiology and Health. J Prob Health. 2015;3:e113.
- Sadoun D, Bendali F. The human Bifidobacterium infantis DZ secretes a bacteriocin-like antibacterial substance active in vitro and in vivo against enteropathogenic E. coli , the major cause of child diarrhea in Algeria. J Food Process Technol. 2012;3:10.
- Michael ET, Amos SO, Hussaini LT. A Review on Probiotics Application in Aquaculture. Fish Aquac J. 2014;5:111.
- Mine T. What is Probiotics?. J Prob Health. 2014;2:e108.
- Sorokulova I. Recombinant Probiotics: Future Perspectives in Disease Treatment. J Prob Health. 2014;2:e109.
- Nikkhah A. Yogurt the Most Natural and Healthy Probiotic: History Reveals. J Prob Health. 2014; 2:e110.
- Nahaisi MH, Ravisankar S, Noratto GD. Probiotics as a Strategy to Improve Overall Human Health in Developing Countries. J Prob Health. 2014;2:118.
- Olmos J, Paniagua-Michel J. Bacillus subtilis A Potential Probiotic Bacterium to Formulate Functional Feeds for Aquaculture. J Microb Biochem Technol. 2014;6:361-365.
- Ibrahim YM, Kearney SM, Levkovich T, Springer A, Mirabal S, et al. Maternal Gut Microbes Control Offspring Sex and Survival. J Prob Health. 2014;2:120.
- Erdman SE. Microbes, Oxytocin, and Healthful longevity. J Prob Health. 2014;2:117.
- Zaki NM. Progress and Problems in Nutraceuticals Delivery. J Bioequiv Availab. 6:075-077.
- del Giudice MM, Leonardi S, Galdo F, Allegorico A, Filippelli M, et al. Probiotics and Vaccination in Children. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2014;5:226.
- Korada SK, Yarla NS. Probiotics: A Promoter for Aqua Farming. J Marine Sci Res Dev. 2014;4:e128.
- Mancuso M. Probiotics in Aquaculture. J Fisheries Livest Prod. 2013;2:e107.
- Jha AK, Uppal B, Chadha S, Dewan r. Assessment of specific antimicrobial therapy on opportunistic diarrheal agents in HIV/AID. 2014;J AIDS Clin Res. 5: 11.
- Paul J, Kumari V, Srivastava S, Bhattacharya S. Exploring the short interspersed nuclear elements for genotyping Entamoeba histolytica. 2014;Clin Microbial. 3: 5.
- Hayek BO. Investigation of a waterborne outbreak of cryptosporidium in Northern Jordan due to contaminated groundwater. 2013;J Marine Sci Res Dev. 3: 3.
- Mahmood NE. Investigations on mass mortalities among Oreochromis niloticus at Mariotteya stream, Egypt : Parasitic infestation and environmental pollution impact. J Marine Sci Res Dev. 2013,3:3.
- Krzych U. Protracted protection against malaria is maintained by memory T cell. J Clin Cell Immunol. 2014;5:5.
- Costa FTM. Development of an experimental vaccine against Plasmodium yoelii infection based on MAEBL-M2 domain in DNA (Prime)–Protein (Boost) immunization regimen. Vaccines Vaccin. 2011;2:5.
- Ahmad H, Samantaray JC, Dar L, Vajpayee M, Sinha S. Treatment of parasitic infection in HIV-1 co-infected patients decrease HIV plasma load. J Clin Exp Pathol. 2013;3:3.
- Pérez-Losada M, Breinholt JW, Aira M, Domínguez J. An Updated Multilocus Phylogeny of the Lumbricidae (Annelida: Clitellata: Oligochaeta) Earthworms. J Phylogen Evolution Biol. 2015;3:140.
- Batham M, Arya R, Tiwari A. Time Efficient Co-composting of Water Hyacinth and Industrial Wastes by Microbial Degradation and Subsequent Vermicomposting. J Bioremed Biodeg. 2014;5:222.
- Gandhi A, Sundari US. Effect of Vermicompost Prepared from Aquatic Weeds on Growth and Yield of Eggplant (Solanum melongena L.). J Biofertil Biopestici. 2012;3:128.
- Ukwubile CA. Anti-Helminthic Properties of Some Nigerian Medicinal Plants on Selected Intestinal Worms in Children (Age 5-13) in Ogurugu, South East Nigeria. J Bacteriol Parasitol. 2012;3:159.
- Tatemastu K, Sezutsu H, Tamura T. Utilization of Transgenic Silkworms for Recombinant Protein Production. J Biotechnol Biomaterial. 2012;S9:004.
- Faye B, Tine RC, Ndiaye JL, Kintega C, Manga NM, et al. Impact of Intestinal Parasites on Intensity of HIV Infection in Senegal. J Antivir Antiretrovir. 2010;1:011-012.
- Nwoha RIO, Daniel G, Onuekwusi GC, Onyeabor A, Igwe KC, et al. Incidences of Haemoparasites in Dogs in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. J Veterinar Sci Technol. 2013;4:141.
- Bharadwaj S, Shraddha N, Joshi VK. An Open Comparative Randomized Clinical Study of Plant Based Drugs Embelia Robusta Roxb and Mallotus Philippinensis Muell on Intestinal Parasites. J Gastroint Dig Syst. 2013;3:122.
- McPherson FJ. Normal Blood Parameters, Common Diseases and Parasites Affecting Captive Non-human Primates. J Primatol. 2013;2:112.
- Dawet A, Yakubu DP, Butu HM. Survey of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Non-Human Primates in Jos Zoological Garden. J Primatol. 2013;2:108.
- Saleem A, El-Said AHM, Maghraby TA, Hussein MA. Pathogenicity and Pectinase Activity of Some Facultative Mycoparasites Isolated from Vicia faba Diseased Leaves in Relation to Photosynthetic Pigments of Plant. J Plant Pathol Microb. 2012;3:141.
- Amin OM. The Contribution of Pathogenic Bacteria to GI Symptoms in Parasite-Free Patients. J Bacteriol Parasitol. 2011;2:109.
- Amare A, Alemayehu A, Aylate A. Prevalence of Internal Parasitic Helminthes Infected Oreochromis niloticus (Nile Tilapia), Clarias gariepinus (African Catfish) and Cyprinus carpio (Common Carp) in Lake Lugo (Hayke), Northeast Ethiopia. J Aquac Res Development. 2014;5:233.
- Alemayehu M, Birhan W, Belyhun Y, Sahle M, Tessema B. Prevalence of Smear Positive Tuberculosis, Intestinal Parasites and Their Co-Infection among Tuberculosis Suspects in Gondar University Hospital and Gondar Poly Clinic, North West Ethiopia. J Microb Biochem Technol. 2014;6:179-184.
- Abd-Elmaleck BS, Abed GH, Mandourt AM. Some Protozoan Parasites Infecting Blood of Camels (Camelus dromedarius) at Assiut Locality, Upper Egypt. J Bacteriol Parasitol. 2014;5:184.
- Kearn GC. Some Aspects of the Biology of Monogenean (Platyhelminth) Parasites of Marine and Freshwater Fishes. Oceanography. 2014;2:117.
- Raji AA, Magaji AA, Bello MB, Lawal MD, Mamuda A, et al. Prevalence of Gastrointestinal Parasites of Stray Cats: A Case Study of Two Hospitals in Sokoto Metropolis, Sokoto, Nigeria. J Bacteriol Parasitol. 2013;4:175.
- Nwoha RIO, Onyeabor A, Igwe KC, Daniel G, Onuekwusi GCO, et al. Prevalence of Haemoparasites in Livestock in Ikwuano Local Government Area of Abia State. J Fisheries Livest Prod. 2013;2:109.
- Ghonimi W, Balah A, Bareedy MH, Sharaf A, Abuel-atta AA. Seminal Glands of Buffalo Bulls (Bos bubalis L.) During Prepubertal and Pubertal Periods: Histological and Histochemical. J Veterinar Sci Technol. 2014;5:188.
- Alemu F. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites and Other Parasites among HIV/AIDS Patients with on-ART Attending Dilla Referral Hospital, Ethiopia. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;5:345.
- Cheepsattayakorn A. New Emerging Human Parasites in 21th Century. Poult Fish Wildl Sci. 2014;2:118.
- Maeng J, Lee K. Secretion of Translationally Controlled Tumor Protein/Histamine Releasing Factor and Its Relevance to Parasitic Infections. Pharm Anal Acta. 2014;5:304.
- Hailu T. Current Prevalence of Intestinal Parasites Emphasis on Hookworm and Schistosoma Mansoni Infections among Patients at Workemeda Health Center, Northwest Ethiopia. Clin Microbial. 2014;3:155.
- Sam Wobo SO, Adekunle NO, Adeleke MA, Dedeke GA, Oke OA, et al. Epidemiological Factors in Prevalence of Malaria Parasites in Primary Health Facilities Attendees, Ogun State, Nigeria. Malar Chemoth Cont Elimination. 2014;3:111.
- Tesfu N, Asrade B, Abebe R, Kasaye S. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Gastrointestinal Nematode Parasites of Horse and Donkeys in Hawassa Town, Ethiopia. J Veterinar Sci Technol. 2014;5:210.
- Machkevskyi VK, Al-Jufaili SH, Khalfan RS, Al-Mazrooei NAM. Marine Parasites of Omani Waters: State of Knowledge. J Biodivers Endanger Species. 2014;2:137.
- Andreotti R, Garcia MV, Matias J, Barros JC, Cunha RC. Tagetes minuta Linnaeus (Asteraceae) as a Potential New Alternative for the Mitigation of Tick Infestation. Med Aromat Plants. 2014;3:168.
- Marzan LW, Barua P, Akter Y, Mannan A, Hossain A, et al. Molecular Investigation on Clinopathological, Genetic and Biochemical Changes in Channa punctata Infected with Internal Parasites and Subjected to Metals Pollution in Chittagong, Bangladesh. J Biomol Res Ther. 2014;3:113.
- Rahman WA, Shakinah Z. Influence of Some Environmental Parameters on Some Frog Populations and their Parasitc Fauna. J Veterinar Sci Technol. 2015;6:227.
- Singh G, Urhekar AD, Maheshwari U, Sharma S, Raksha. Prevalence of Malaria in a Tertiary Care Hospital in Navi Mumbai, India. J Bacteriol Parasitol. 2015;6:221.
- Reshid M, Adugna M, Redda YT, Awol N, Teklu A. A Study of Clinostomum (Trematode) and Contracaecum (Nematode) Parasites Affecting Oreochromis niloticus in Small Abaya Lake, Silite Zone, Ethiopia. J Aquac Res Development. 2015;6:316.
- Quiazon KMA. Updates on Aquatic Parasites in Fisheries: Implications to Food Safety, Food Security and Environmental Protection. J Coast Zone Manag. 2015;18:396.
- Bekele J, Hussien D. Prevalence of Internal Parasites of Oreochromis niloticus and Clarias gariepinus Fish Species in Lake Ziway, Ethiopia. J Aquac Res Development. 2015;6:308.
- Thérèse N, Edmond KY, Rodrique DN, Hortense GK, Frederick K, et al. Comparison of Intestinal Parasitic Infection among Adults with or without HIV/AIDS in Yaoundé and Effect of HAART and CD4 Cells Counts. J Bacteriol Parasitol. 2015;6:208.
- Zofou D. A diversity of approaches to address the challenge of drug-resistance in malaria. J Biotechnol Biomaterial. 2011;1:e108.
- ChacÃ¬n-Bonilla L, Vielma JR, Bonilla E. Should Melatonin be Considered a Complementary or Alternative Therapy against Parasitic Infections?. Epidemiology (Sunnyvale). 2014;4:e117.
- Banchiamlak Mekonnen, Berhanu Erko and Mengistu Legesse. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Related Risk Factors among Street Dwellers in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. J Trop Dis. 2014;2:132.
- Workneh T, Esmael A, Ayichiluhm M. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections and Associated Factors among Debre Elias Primary Schools Children, East Gojjam Zone, Amhara Region, North West Ethiopia. J Bacteriol Parasitol. 2014;5:181.
- Hatzipantelis ES, Kourti M, Fragandrea J, Avramidou K, Sidi V, et al. Rare Parasitic Infection in a Child with Neuroblastoma. Pediat Therapeut. 2013;3:179.
- Chala B. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections in Mojo Health Center, Eastern Ethiopia: A 6-year (2005-2010) Retrospective Study. Epidemiol. 2013;3:119.
- Jerez Puebla LE, Millá¡n IA, Núñez Fernández FA. Frequency of Blastocystosis and Its Association with Clinical Symptoms in 2 Years of Surveillance at "Pedro Kourí¬" Institute. Clin Microbiol. 2014;3:178.
- Marzan LW, Barua P, Akter Y, Mannan A, Hossain A, et al. Molecular Investigation on Clinopathological, Genetic and Biochemical Changes in Channa punctata Infected with Internal Parasites and Subjected to Metals Pollution in Chittagong, Bangladesh. J Biomol Res. Ther 2014;3:113.
- Taye S, Abdulkerim A. Prevalence of Intestinal Parasitic Infections among Patients with Diarrhea at Bereka Medical Center, Southeast Ethiopia: A Retrospective Study. Fam Med Med Sci Res. 2014;3:131.
- Baran H, Draxler M, Lang Ch, Schmoll F, Strasser A, et al. Kynurenic acid metabolism in piglets after Encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV) infection. J AIDS Clin Res. 2014;5:11.
- Abossie A, Seid M. Assessment of the prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and associated risk factors among primary school children in Chencha town, Southern Ethiopia. J Prob Health. 2014;2:2.
- Pokhrel D. Prevalence of intestinal parasitic infection among school children in Nepal. Clin Microbial. 2014;3:5.
- Alulema MJ, Gestal MC. Retrospective study of the chagas and malaria situation in Ecuador for the last 20 year. Clin Microbial. 2014;3:5.
- Dagona AG. Prevalence of intestinal parasites among school children in Gashua Town, Yobe State. J Microb Biochem Technol. 2013;5:4.
- Abaver DT, Goon DT. Enteric parasitic infections in HIV-infected patients with low CD4 counts in Toto, Nigeria. J AIDS Clin Res. 2013;4:9.
- Ali J, Yismaw G, Gebretsadik S, Belhun Y, Woldeyohannes D, et al. Intestinal parasitic infection, allergy and total serum IgE level in asymptomatic school children, Gondar, North west Ethiopia. J Clin Cell Immunol. 2013;4:5.
- Sunita K, Rajyalakshmi M, Kumar K, Sowjanya M. Serum glucose and serum protein levels in Plasmodium falciparum infected experimental C57BL/6J mice. J Biotechnol Biomater. 2013;2:6.
- Kanwar JR. Oral administration of novel alginate enclosed, chitosan coated Fe-bLf loaded ceramic nanocarriers for parasitic infections: A potential alternative medicine. J Nutr Food Sci. 2012;2:7.
- Kiprijanov SM. Genetically Engineered Pea Seeds Protect Against Parasites. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2011;2:5.
- Kalyanasundara R. Developing a multivalent vaccine for lymphatic filariasis – A neglected tropical disease. J Vaccines Vaccin. 2012;3:4.
- Srivastav S, Ray S. Serum proteome analysis of falciparum and vivax malaria: Search for surrogate protein markers. J Proteomics Bioinform. 2012;5:6.
- Grace P, Yako A, Ajegena AA. Intestinal parasitic infections in HIV-positive individuals on HAART and HAART naïve accessing healthcare in a Federal Medical Centre in Nigeria. J Antivir Antiretrovir. 2012;4:4.
- Amin OM. Common human parasites and pathogens and their natural remedies in the USA. J Gastroint Dig Syst. 2013;3:2.
- Galeano E, Thomas OP, Robledo S, Muñoz D, Martínez A. Bromotyrosine derivatives isolated from marine sponges as antiparasitary. J Mol Biomark Diagn. 2011;2:4.