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Prevention of Metabolic Syndrome with Yoga - A Mini Review

Mukthi Thammana1*, Vidhya Vani Thammana2

1Department of Pharmacy, Vignan Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology, Duvvada, Visakhapatnam.

2Department of Yoga and Consciousness, Yoga Village, Andhra University, Visakhapatnam.

*Corresponding Author:
Mukti Thammana
Department of Pharmacy
Vignan Institute of Pharmaceutical Technology and
Department of Yoga and Consciousness, Yoga Village
Andhra University, Visakhapatnam
Tel: 8142264639

Received Date: 02/08/2016; Accepted Date: 04/08/2016; Published Date: 11/08/2016

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Metabolic Syndrome is a mixture of complications such as cardiovascular risk, Diabetes, Stroke. Any of these complications may affect the life of the person. Yoga can maintain the physical health, mental health and spiritual health too. Several studies proved that regular practice of yoga has many beneficial effects. This review mainly focuses how metabolic syndrome (a cluster of complications) can be prevented by yoga.


Yoga, Metabolic syndrome, Cardiovascular risk, Diabetes.


Metabolic syndrome (Mets) is not an illness in itself. Rather, it's a gathering of danger elements - hypertension, high glucose, higher cholesterol levels, and stomach fat [1-5]. Clearly, having any of these danger components isn't serious. Be that as it may, when they're joined, they set the phase for significant issues. These complications lead to twofold danger of vein and coronary illness, which can increase heart problems and strokes [6-10].

The pathophysiology is exceptionally unpredictable and has been just somewhat illustrated. Most patients are more seasoned, large, stationary, and have a level of insulin resistance [1]. The most vital danger variables are eating regimen (especially sugarsweetened drink utilization), hereditary qualities, stress, low physical action, reduced chronobiology/rest, temperament issue/ psychotropic drug use, and extreme liquor use.

Insulin resistance (IR) is a condition in which the body's cells get to be impervious to the impacts of insulin. That is, the ordinary reaction to a given measure of insulin is diminished. Thus, more elevated amounts of insulin are required with the goal insulin should have its appropriate impacts. In this way, the pancreas repays by attempting to create more insulin. This resistance happens in light of the body's own insulin (endogenous) or when insulin is regulated by infusion (exogenous) [11-15].

Various markers of systemic irritation, including C-reactive protein, are regularly expanded, as are fibrinogen, interleukin 6, tumor necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α), and others. Some have indicated an assortment of causes, including expanded uric acid levels brought on by dietary fructose. Late research shows delayed persistent anxiety can add to metabolic disorder by disturbing the hormonal parity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal pivot (HPA-axis A useless HPA-hub causes high cortisol levels to flow, which results in raising glucose and insulin levels, which thus cause insulin-interceded impacts on fat tissue, at last advancing instinctive adiposity, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension, with direct consequences for the bone, bringing on "low turnover" osteoporosis. HPA-hub brokenness may clarify the reported danger sign of stomach weight to cardiovascular sickness (CVD), sort type 2 diabetes and stroke. Psychosocial anxiety is additionally connected to coronary diseases [16-20].

Metabolic disorder is a danger component for neurological issue. A metabolic disorder happens when anomalous synthetic responses in the human body upset digestion system. When this happens, the patient may have a lot of a few substances, or too little of others, which are expected to stay solid. Scatters in digestion system can be acquired, in which case they are otherwise called characteristic blunders of digestive system, or they may be inherited. Numerous metabolic disorders exist; Phenylketonuria is a case of an acquired metabolic issue described by a powerlessness to separate one of the building squares of protein, the amino corrosive phenylalanine. Type I diabetes, an infection in which the pancreas does not make enough insulin to keep up adjusted glucose levels, is a metabolic issue of sugar digestion system. A case of a metabolic disorder influencing fat digestion system is Gaucher's sickness, which is characterized by an absence of the compound glucocerebrosidase. Metabolic disorders can likewise be complications of extreme illnesses or conditions, including liver or respiratory disappointment, malignancy, incessant obstructive aspiratory ailment (COPD, incorporates emphysema and endless bronchitis) and HIV/AIDS [21-25].

Metabolomics studies recommend an overabundance of natural acids, weakened lipid oxidation results, fundamental unsaturated fats and key amino acids in the blood serum of influenced patients [25]. In any case, it is not by any stretch of the imagination clear whether the collection of vital unsaturated fats and amino acids is the consequence of inordinate ingestion or abundance generation by gut micro biota.

As far as metabolic use, yoga practice is viewed as a low-level physical movement. Yoga can enhance metabolic rate, perfusion, cardiopulmonary capacity, and activity limit. Yoga is valuable in decreasing indications of MetS and can realize upgrades in lipid profiles, and circulatory strain. Yoga enhances insulin affectability and is by and large powerful in decreasing the danger of metabolic syndrome. Yoga practice is defensive against heart disappointment and atrial fibrillation, the cardiovascular diseases [26-30].

Yoga is thought to work by getting to parasympathetic pathways in the autonomic sensory system and revitalize the unwinding reaction Neuro-hormonal pathways, for example, the renin angiotensin aldosterone complex, are thought to be vital in the control of increased heart rate, increased pulse, myocardial localized necrosis, atrial fibrillation, and congestive heart disappointment [31-36]. These same neuro-hormonal pathways additionally are thought to be effective as the instruments of yoga. Because of its impact on numerous components in autonomic pathways, yoga has positive effects on reports of stress and heart rate variability. Yoga practice weakens psychological complications, advances wellbeing, and can be efficacious in self-care in the avoidance and upkeep of cardiovascular and metabolic wellbeing Various studies are conducting by utilization of yoga in preventing the metabolic syndrome [2,36-40].

Diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome

Metabolic disorder happens when any person has three or a greater amount of the following:

•Abdominal weight (Waist perimeter of 40 inches or above in men, and 35 inches or above in ladies)

•Triglyceride level of 150 mg for every deciliter of blood (mg/dL) or more prominent

•HDL cholesterol of under 40 mg/dL in men or under 50 mg/dL in ladies

•Systolic circulatory strain (top number) of 130 m, of mercury (mmHg) or more prominent, or diastolic pulse (base number) of 85 mmHg or more prominent

•Fasting glucose of 100 mg/dL or more prominent

Metabolic disorder is accompanied by central obesity, dyslipidemia, compromised fasting glucose, and hypertension [3,41-45]. Shockingly, these components add to harm the endothelium that thus, will deduce in the advancement of different confusions saw in the metabolic disorder. Endothelial dysfunction is chiefly brought about by a diminishing in nitric oxide (NO) accessibility because of decreased NO generation and increment in oxygen-inferred free radicals (ROS) that can respond with NO and inactivates the dynamic atom [44].

Most broadly the metabolic syndrome components are atherogenic dyslipidemia, raised circulatory strain, and lifted plasma glucose. People with these qualities ordinarily show a prothrombotic state. Atherogenic dyslipidemia comprises of a total of lipoprotein variations from the group including raised serum triglyceride and Apo lipoprotein B (apoB), expanded little LDL particles, and a decreased level of HDL cholesterol (HDL-C). The metabolic disorder is regularly suggested as a discrete element with a solitary cause. The dominating hidden danger variables for the disorder have stomach obesity and insulin resistance other related conditions can be physical inactivity, aging, and hormonal imbalance [45-47]. An atherogenic diet (e.g. an eating regimen rich in soaked fat and cholesterol) can improve hazard for creating cardiovascular sickness in individuals with the disorder, in spite of the fact that this eating regimen is not recorded particularly as a fundamental danger component for the condition. Numerous metabolic pathways have additionally been proposed to connection insulin resistance and compensatory hyperinsulinemia to the next metabolic danger elements. In spite of the fact that insulin-safe people need not be clinically large, they all things considered generally have a strange fat conveyance that is portrayed by prevalent abdominal area fat [18]. Abdominal area fat corresponds with insulin resistance. Overabundance abdominal area fat can accumulate either intraperitoneally (instinctive fat) or subcutaneously. Numerous agents assert that overabundance instinctive fat is more certainly connected with insulin resistance than other fat tissue compartment [48-51].

Regardless of the relative commitments of instinctive fat and stomach subcutaneous fat to insulin resistance, an example of stomach (or abdominal area) adiposity associates all the more certainly with insulin resistance and the metabolic disorder than lowers body obesity [38]. An interesting component of abdominal area adiposity is a strangely high arrival of no esterified unsaturated fats from fat tissue this adds to amassing of lipid in locales other than fat tissue. Ectopic lipid aggregation in muscle and liver apparently leads to insulin resistance and dyslipidemia. Several late reports demonstrate that the metabolic disorder is connected with more serious danger for cardiovascular disease, yet once type 2 diabetes mellitus raises, cardiovascular danger increases even more. Finally, insulin resistance and the metabolic disorder are connected with an assortment of other conditions some of these are fatty liver, polycystic ovary syndrome, cholesterol gallstones, rest apnea, lipodystrophies and protease-inhibitor treatment for HIV [52-65].

Management of Metabolic Syndrome

The essential objective of clinical administration in people with the metabolic disorder is to decrease hazard for clinical atherosclerotic element. Indeed, even in individuals with the metabolic disorder, first-line treatment is coordinated toward the real hazard variables: LDL-C above objective, hypertension, and diabetes [6,12]. Prevention of sort 2 diabetes mellitus is another essential objective when it is not present in a man with the metabolic disorder. For some people with diabetes, hazard component administration must be strengthened to reduce their higher danger for metabolic syndrome. The primary objective for prevention of the metabolic disorder fundamentally is to relieve the modifiable, hidden danger variables (corpulence, physical activity, and atherogenic diet) through way of life changes. Lifestyle change successfully will reduce the greater part of the metabolic danger components. At that point, if danger is sufficiently high, thought can be given to consolidating drug treatment to the regimen. The need of medication treatment is rises of LDL-C, circulatory strain, and glucose; current rules for their administration to be taken after. Identifying metabolic syndrome is some portion of general risk assessment for cardiovascular infection.

Although numerous individuals might be hereditarily defenseless to the metabolic disorder, rarely does it turn out to be clinically showed without over weight and physical laziness. Thus, treatments to relieve these fundamental danger components constitute first-line component. The motivation to change hidden danger variables is to anticipate or defer onset of cardiovascular diseases and if type 2 diabetes mellitus is not officially present, a corresponding objective is to anticipate it also. Both weight reduction and maintenance of a lower weight are best accomplished by a mix of decreased caloric administration and expanded physical action and the utilization of standards of lifestyle change [66-70]. At present accessible weight reduction drugs have restricted utility in the administration of stoutness.

Increasing physical activity helps with weight reduction. It additionally has beneficial effects on metabolic risk factor. Beyond weight ability to control and decrease of aggregate calories, the eating regimen diet should be low in soaked fats, Trans fats, cholesterol, sodium, and straightforward sugars. Compelling weight reduction requires a mix of caloric confinement, physical movement, and inspiration; successful long lasting support of weight reduction basically requires a harmony between caloric admission and physical action.

Physical Activity is very essential to manage the metabolic syndrome [71-94]. Yoga helps in maintaining the body physically fit. To reduce the risk of the metabolic syndrome physical fitness is necessary. Several methods are there in yoga. Some of them are Asanas, Pranayamas, Kriyas. The Asanas which prevent the diabetes are Suryanamashkaras, Arthamatsyendrasana, Paschimoorthana, Hamsa, Mayura, Jatariparivarthana asana. Pranayamas include Suryabhedana, Chandra Bhedana, Seethli, Seetkari, Brahmari, Bastrika, Nadisodhana. As Cardiovascular risk patients’ needs utmost care. So those asanas performed for preventing diabetes should not be performed by cardiac patients. The cardiac patients should practice simple asanas like thadasana and they should avoid practice of complicated asanas and pranayamas [95-98]. They should not practice forceful pranayamas like bastrika. Nadisodhana is the best fit pranayama for cardiac patients. A detailed procedure and benefits for all these yogic techniques is provided by Yogacharya Rao [99]. Meditation and pranayama’s will help to keep the mind relaxed and improves the concentration power too [100].


Regular practice of yoga has several beneficial effects. Several studies proved the advantages of yoga. So, Metabolic Syndrome a cluster of complications can also be prevented by regular practice of yoga. Healthy diet also plays key role in preventing these complications. This Review presented the brief note regarding metabolic syndrome and its management by alternative measures like yoga.