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Process Flow Improvement through 5S, Kaizen and Visualization

Mayank Dev Singh1, Swati Singh2, Abhishek Chokshi3, Harshad Chavan4, Dhrudipsinh Dabhi5
  1. Assistant Professor, Department of Mechanical Engineering, SIE College, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
  2. U.G. Student, Department of Mechanical Engineering, SIE College, Vadodara, Gujarat, India
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Nowadays, manufacturing industries throughout the world are interested in lean manufacturing philosophy. This project is based on lean manufacturing tools like 5S, Kaizen and Visualization. 5S is tool to ensuring systematic organizational environment, Kaizen is continuous improvement through small steps to obtain economical result of the organization and Visualization is technique of creating images, diagrams or animations of firm‟s activity which are helpful and effective way of communication for all people connected with firm. This project is intended to utilize these tools and come up with integrated approach. Also to reduce abnormality in organization by applying ergonomics for various working positions of employees which improve the productivity, by applying it at pipe manufacturing industry “Sandvik Asia Pvt. Ltd, Mehsana, Gujarat”. Owner of firm is also interested to implement this concept; hence as an industrial perspective this project will give us knowledge that how the practical implementations of lean concepts takes place


5S, Kaizen, Visualization, Abnormality, Ergonomic


Nowadays, manufacturing industries throughout the world are interested in Profit Maximization with maintaining quality to stay in competitive market. At the present time of a highly competitive market, to improve productivity with best quality and to improve market share at least cost, it is necessary to develop, improve and sustain systematic and healthy organizational place. At present scenario the industry Sandvik Asia Pvt. Ltd. is facing various types of problem due to unadapted standards and techniques. There is large scope to implement lean tools to work on these problems. This project is based on application of lean manufacturing tools like 5S, Kaizen and Visualization. The company, Sandvik Asia Pvt. Ltd., is interested to apply these tools at their place. This project also aims to reduce abnormality in organization by applying ergonomics for various working positions of employees. As an industrial perspective, this project intimates practical implementation of lean concepts.

 Objective of the project research

To improve efficiency of the Plant by using various industrial engineering techniques.  To apply tools of lean manufacturing (5S, Kaizen, Visualization).  To apply ergonomics for various working positions of employees.  To reduce abnormality in organization.


Desai et al. (2012) worked on “Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Implementation in a Machine Shop: A Case Study”. According to them the goal of any TPM program is to improve productivity and quality along with increased employee morale and job satisfaction. In today‟s industrial scenario huge losses/wastage occur in the manufacturing shop floor. This waste is due to operators, maintenance personal, process, tooling problems and non-availability of components in time etc. Other forms of waste includes idle machines, idle manpower, break down machine, rejected parts etc. are all examples of waste. They concluded that, the experience of implementing Total Productive Maintenance is shared and investigated for a company manufacturing automotive component. Concept is implemented in the machine shop having CNC turning centres of different capacity. Overall Equipment Effectiveness is used as the measure of success of TPM implementation. The losses associated with equipment effectiveness are identified. All the pillars of TPM are implemented in a phased manner eliminating the losses and thus improving the utilization of CNC machines. Rahani et al. (2012) worked on “Production Flow Analysis through Value Stream Mapping: A Lean Manufacturing Process Case Study”. According to them the paper begins by providing a brief synopsis on the principles applied in this study followed by the background information on the work conducted in the project. In general view, Lean Manufacturing (LM) is an arrangement of techniques and activities for running a production industries or service operation. They concluded that Lean Production (LP) principles were adapted for the process sector of an automotive part manufacturing plant. Value Stream Mapping (VSM) is one of the key lean tools used to identify the opportunities for various lean techniques. An Implementation Plan then outline details of the steps needed to support the LP objectives. This paper demonstrates the VSM techniques and discusses the application in an LP initiative on a product (Front disc, D45T) case study.
Farris et al. (2008) worked on “Critical success factors for human resource outcomes in Kaizen events: An empirical study”. According to them this research contributes to the current body of knowledge by increasing the understanding of what factors most contribute to sustaining the human resource outcome work area attitude and commitment to Kaizen events. The present work represents the second phase of a multi-year Kaizen event research initiative and builds upon the first phase which identified critical success factors of initial Kaizen event outcomes, assessed immediately after the event‟s conclusion. They concluded that in the overall study, both technical system and social system outcomes are measured; however, the scope of this paper focuses only on the social system outcome, work area attitude and commitment, while Contents lists available at Science Direct results related to other technical system and social system out- comes will be presented in future works. This paper identifies the factors that most strongly influence the sustainability of work area employee attitudes and commitment to Kaizen events based on a field study of 65 events in eight manufacturing organizations. The findings also present guidelines for organizations and areas for future research. Caroly et al. (2010) worked on “Sustainable MSD prevention: Management for continuous improvement between prevention and production, Ergonomic intervention in two assembly line companies”. According to them the aim is to analyse the conditions required for this safety/production logic approach to be integrated in the „„continuous improvement‟‟ systems of French industry. Incorporating organizational level into occupational health research is an international question which could help industries to improve production/safety and preserve worker health. They concluded, to increase output and meet customer‟s needs, companies have turned to the development of production management systems: Kaizen, one piece flow, Kanban, etc. The aim of such systems is to accelerate decisions, react to environmental issues and manage various productions. Conversely, regulation and control systems focusing on work-related risks have obliged firms to implement health and safety management systems such as OHSAS 18001. The purpose of this type of system, also based on continuous improvement, is to reduce risks, facilitate workrelated activities and identify solutions in terms of equipment and tools.s
Dombrowski et al. (2014) worked on “Lean Leadership – 15 Rules for a sustainable Lean Implementation”. According to them implementation of a lean production system changes the way improvements are made. In order to eliminate waste continuously, employees have to question their processes and identify improvement possibilities. They concluded that Lean leadership could be the missing link between toolbox lean and a sustainable continuously improving organization. More and more enterprises realize that they have so far basically focused on the visible parts of lean production systems. The common approach can be explained by using the 4P Model. It consists of 4 levels that are all necessary for a sustainable lean implementation. The levels are: philosophy (long-term thinking), process (eliminate waste), people and partner (respect, challenge and grow them) and problem solving.
Hultin et al. (2014) worked on “Visualizing institutional logics in socio material practices”. According to them the present findings from a longitudinal case study of the emergency general surgery ward of a Nordic university hospital. In the case, we observe how the operational staff members at the ward use visualization boards to make sense of and gradually adopt and develop work routines consistent with a new institutional logic. The new logic is manifested in the production philosophy called Lean management practices (Lean practices), in turn part of a larger institutional trend in the service and healthcare industry often described under the rubric of New Public Management (NPM). They concluded that this paper aims to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms underlying the mutual constitution of competing institutional logics and sociomaterial entanglements by combining a sociomaterial lens with the institutional logics perspective. First, they show how the perceived affordances of a technology are created from the experience of using several different technologies and how the rejection of one technology can simultaneously constitute another. Second, they show how visualization artifacts, entangled in sociomaterial practices, can shape individual focus of attention and thus facilitate the integration of a new institutional logic in operational practice.


There are various types of problem occurred in this company which are described below:
Improper material handling After extrusion and cooling processes of pipes/tubes workers manually distinguish them, hence consumes more time than ideal time.  Visualization problem There is no indication for fluid inside the pipe and its flow direction. Also there is no visualization for type and operating range of gauge/valve throughout the plant. Plant also lacks in process visualization for pilgering, annealing and degreasing processes.  Waste of motion and time Due to unadapted standards and techniques waste of motion and time takes place, this kind of waste affect to overall cost of product and productivity.  Ergonomics problem The height of furnace is less than worker height at pilger machine, hence heat expelled from furnace increases surrounding temperature.  Early breakdown of machine At extrusion press and DHDM machine there is improper preventive maintenance which results in early breakdown of machine.  Abnormality Due to insufficient knowledge of worker, abnormality generates at their workplace.
 Improper arrangement of tools and materials
 Improper usage of space
 Improper communication between different departments





 Flow Process Chart:

For the production of pipes/tubes solid round bars are used as raw material. The available diameter of various kinds of round bars is, 120 mm (now replaced by 121 mm) & 134.5 mm & 138 mm & 150 mm.


Current state for pipelines does not show direction of the flow of fluid inside the pipe so we can use stickers which would indicate the direction of flow. There is no identification of which fluid is flowing inside the pipes so type of fluid can be indicated on the same sticker. And also it is difficult to predict the diameter of the pipes so diameter also can be written on the sticker. Sample of the sticker is shown below:-
Here, Flow Direction- towards right Type of liquid passing into the pipeline – Oil (TDN 81) Diameter of the pipe- 3 inch
For production related information, we suggested an idea of production planning board. Production planning Screen (LCD screen) can be fitted in the plant near Pilger machine. This visualization gives better understanding about machine to operators and apprentice about the process of machine. Production planning board contains all the production related information for pilger1 and pilger2 as shown below:-


It has been concluded that by applying various lean manufacturing concepts at different areas following results are achieved.


[1] U. Dombrowski, T. Mielke, 2014, “Lean Leadership – 15 Rules for a sustainable Lean Implementation” Procedia CIRP 17 (2014) 565 – 570.

[2] Prof. Girish G. Phatak, 2013, “Quality and Reliability Engineering”, Okhla Phase-II, New Delhi-110020.

[3] LottaHultin, Magnus Mahring, 2013, “Visualizing institutional logics in sociomaterial practices” Information and Organization 24 (2014) 129– 155.

[4] Dr. K.C. Arora, 2012, “Total Quality Management”, S. K. Kataria& Sons, Darya Ganj, New Delhi-110002.

[5] Rahani AR, Muhammad al-Ashraf, 2012, “Production Flow Analysis through Value Stream Mapping: A Lean Manufacturing Process Case Study”, Procedia Engineering 41 (2012) 1727 – 1734.

[6] Ranteshwar Singh, Ashish M Gohil, Dhaval B Shah, Sanjay Desai, 2012,” Total Productive Maintenance (TPM) Implementation in a Machine Shop: A Case Study”, Procedia Engineering 51 (2013) 592 – 599.

[7] Poornima M. Charantimath, A. Maran, Priya Christopher, Jennifer Sargunar, 2011,“Total Quality Management” second Edition, Dorling Kinderley (India) Pvt. Ltd., A-8 (A) Sector 62, Noida 201 309.

[8] S. Caroly, F. Coutarel, A. Landry, Mary-Cheray, 2009, “Sustainable MSD prevention: Management for continuous improvement between prevention and production. Ergonomic intervention in two assembly line companies” Applied Ergonomics 41 (2010) 591–599.

[9] Jennifer A. Farris, Eileen M. VanAken, Toni L. Doolen, June Worley, 2008,” Critical success factors for human resource outcomes in Kaizen events: An empirical study”, Int. J. Production Economics 117 (2009) 42–65.

[10] Kazuo Tsuchiya, Freddy Soon, 2008, “The Practice of Good Housekeeping (5S & Kaizen)”, Singapore Productivity and Standards Board.