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Psoriasis: Its Underlying Causes and Treatment Methods

Michele Angelo*

Department of Medicine, Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi, India

Corresponding Author:
Michele Angelo
Department of Medicine
Jawaharlal Nehru University
New Delhi, India

Received: 29-May-2023, Manuscript No. JCMCS-23- 100492; Editor assigned: 01- Jun-2023, Pre QC No. JCMCS- 23-100492 (PQ); Reviewed: 15-Jun-2023, QC No. JCMCS- 23-100492; Revised: 22-Jun- 2023, Manuscript No. JCMCS- 23-100492 (R); Published: 29- Jun-2023, DOI: 10.4172/J Clin Med Case Stud.8.2.009.

Citation: Angelo M. Psoriasis: Its Underlying Causes and Treatment Methods. J Clin Med Case Stud. 2023;8:009.

Copyright: © 2023 Angelo M. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

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Psoriasis is a chronic skin disease that affects millions of people worldwide. It is characterized by patches of red, scaly skin that can be itchy and painful. Despite being a common condition, the underlying mechanisms of psoriasis are not fully understood. The five primary kinds of psoriasis are plaque, guttate, reverse, pustular, and erythrodermic. About 90% of cases are plaque psoriasis also known as psoriasis vulgaris. It typically appears as red patches covered in white scales. Region of the body most generally impacted are the rear of the lower arms, shins, navel region, and scalp. Guttate psoriasis has drop-formed sores. Small, pus-filled blisters are the sign and symptoms of pustular psoriasis. Red patches on skin folds are the result of inverse psoriasis. Erythrodermic psoriasis happens when the rash turns out to be extremely inescapable, and can create from any of different sorts. The majority of people who have psoriasis experience nail and toenail problems at some point in their lives. This might remember pits for the nails or changes in nail tone.

Through a review of current research, the intricate relationship between the immune system, genetics, and environmental factors are explored that contribute to psoriasis development. The impacts of psoriasis on mental health are examined and emerging therapies that offer hope for those living with this challenging condition are discussed. By shedding light on the complexity of psoriasis, understanding of this disease and inspire new avenues for research and treatment are promoted.


The epidermal layer of the skin grows abnormally quick and excessive in people with psoriasis. The sequence of pathological events in psoriasis results in abnormal skin cell production, especially during wound repair, as well as an excess of skin cells. It is believed that psoriasis begins with an initiation phase in which an event (such as skin trauma, infection, or drugs) activates the immune system. The maintenance phase, on the other hand, is the ongoing progression of the disease. Skin cells are supplanted each 3 days-5 days in psoriasis as opposed to the standard 28 days-30 days. An inflammatory cascade that involves dendritic cells, macrophages, and T cells-three subtypes of white blood cells—in the dermis is thought to have caused the premature maturation of keratinocytes that led to these changes. These resistant cells move from the dermis to the epidermis and emit incendiary substance signals (cytokines, for example, interleukin-36 and growth putrefaction factor-α, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and interleukin-22.These discharged provocative signs are accepted to invigorate keratinocytes to multiply. One possibility is that regulatory T cells and the regulatory cytokine interleukin-10 are defective in psoriasis. Psoriatic skin lesions and the inflammatory cytokines found in psoriatic nails and joints (in the case of psoriatic arthritis) are comparable, pointing to a shared inflammatory mechanism. Psoriasis susceptibility markers have been identified as protein gene mutations that affect the skin's ability to function as a barrier.

In psoriasis, the inflammatory stimulus of Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) released from dying cells stimulates certain dendritic cell receptors, which in turn produce the cytokine interferon. Keratinocytes also secrete cytokines like interleukin-1, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor- in response to these chemical messages from dendritic cells and T cells. These cytokines tell other inflammatory cells to come and cause more inflammation.

Dendritic cells span the inborn resistant framework and versatile insusceptible framework. They cause the proliferation of T cells and type-1 helper T cells (Th1), which is increased in psoriatic lesions. Designated immunotherapy, as well as psoralen and bright A (PUVA) treatment, can diminish the quantity of dendritic cells and favors a Th2 cell cytokine discharge design over a Th1/Th17 cell cytokine profile Psoriatic Lymphocytes move from the dermis into the epidermis and emit interferon-γ and interleukin-17. It is known that interleukin-23 causes interleukin-17 and interleukin-22 to be made. Keratinocytes are induced to secrete cytokines that attract neutrophils by interleukin-22 and interleukin-17 working together.