ISSN ONLINE(2319-8753)PRINT(2347-6710)

All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Selection Criteria of Formwork by Users in Current Age In South Gujarat Region

Patel Abhiyan S. 1, Neeraj Sharma D.2 , Bhavin K Kashiyani3
  1. PG student, Dept. of Civil Engineering, S.N.P.I.T. &R.C., Umrakh, India
  2. Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, S.N.P.I.T. &R.C., Umrakh, India
  3. Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, S.N.P.I.T. &R.C., Umrakh, India
Related article at Pubmed, Scholar Google

Visit for more related articles at International Journal of Innovative Research in Science, Engineering and Technology


Formwork is the use of support structures and moulds to create structures out of concrete which is poured into the moulds. There are many different types of formwork used in construction, usually differing according to what the building requirements and challenges are in construction. Formwork is used by creating moulds out of wood, steel, aluminum or prefabricated forms into which the concrete is poured. This is then allowed to harden and set after which it is stripped, or in the case of stay-in-place formwork it is left as part of the structure. Formwork allows contractors to cast and construct the main parts of a building which are required to be strong and support the structure such as floors and walls, as well as smaller parts of a building such as stairs relatively quickly. Now in modern era consumer is using or choosing formwork based upon the maximum possible uses, initial and maintenance cost, erection and dismantling time, suitability of labour. In this research work, Factors for selecting and applicability criteria have been decided from the various literatures and the interview with the selected respondents. Questionnaire has been prepared with keep in mind about residential projects and commercial projects only and prepared different questionnaires for different respondents in the different language too. Questionnaire will be distributed to various consultant, Contractor and manufacturer/distributor of formwork in various parts of south Gujarat Region.


formwork, cost, erection and dismantling, safety ,suitability of labours


Formwork is a temporary construction; however care must be taken to prevent damage to permanent work. There are some general principles governed formwork design and construction like Quality, Safety, Economy. Based on the title of my research, this dissertation is to research on what are the factors that has been considered in determining the choice of formwork. Throughout the research you will see various types of formwork details and also the factors, the system or the methods that are being used in our Construction Industry nowadays. The purpose of determining the choice of formwork mainly is to reduce the cost of construction. The cost of formwork is occupying a big percentage in the total construction cost, as we do not allow to reduce the cost by changing other building components requirement due to they were all specified in the Contract Documents, therefore choose and plan the system of formwork wisely will greatly reduce the cost of construction. In addition, choosing a proper system of formwork will also reduce the time of construction and the wastage thus reduces the total construction cost. Therefore, choosing the system of formwork wisely is a good practice for every construction work.


To carry out the study review on prevailing wooden formwork, steel formwork, and aluminium formwork plastic formwork used in construction. To study regarding factors affected like safety, availability and quality involved in usage of typicalformwork at various stages of the construction work. To contrast and compare the performance of the formworks under the influence of study which focusing by considering cost and safety aspects.


The various Factors affecting selection of Brick are determined by viewing various literatures. From that 13 factors considered for this study are: Cost, Availability,safety,Erection & dismantling, life span, Easily fixable size, quality assured, important, Time factors, Quality of work, suitability to labour, market trend, inaccessible to supply.


The research methodology for present study based on questionnaire survey which was prepared based on above considered factors. This questionnaire is based on approach of ranking the Factors affecting selection of formwork of statistical some computational criteria is used to rank the factors. The questionnaire for survey was distributed to contractor, consultants and consumers to seek their view


The target population included civil engineering and buildings construction firms of South Gujarat region of India. The Consumers, Consultants and contractors of Surat&Tapi district of South Gujarat were targeted for survey. The details of various stakeholders and total numbers of them were collected through internet. These details were considered as size of population to decide sample size of study. To obtains a statistically representative sample of the population, the formula shown in Eq. (1) was used:
Where n, m, and N = the sample size of the limited, unlimited, and available population, respectively. m is estimated by Eq. (2) was used:
Where z = the statistic value for the confidence level used, i.e., 2.575, 1.96, and 1.645,for 99%, 95%, and 90% confidence levels, respectively; p = the value of the population proportion that is being estimated; and a = the sampling error of the point estimate. Because the value of p is unknown, suggested a Conservative value of 0.50 be used so that a sample size that is at least as large as required be obtained. By using a 90% confidence level, i.e., 10% significance level, the unlimited sample size of the population, m, is approximated as follows:Accordingly, for the total number of consultant, i.e., N, of 4391, the representative sample size of the population required, is determined as shown below:
Sample size of contractor 65 developer’s 65, suppliers 65
First of all, list of the stakeholders was generated from local survey and the internet through their websites and accordingly questionnaires were distributed to various stakeholders by going personally or through email. Personal interview and mail back techniques were used in this research, where respondents had a clear opportunity to take part or not; therefore, the voluntary participation in research was ensured. The telephone number, e-mail contacts of researcher were given in the questionnaire for contact regarding any query as well as for sending back the response. The questionnaire were distributed to various stakeholders by informing them regarding the purpose of the research and asking them about their willingness to participate in the research. Once the initial willingness was shown by them, a questionnaire was given to them. Total 380 questionnaires were distributed to different respondents in South Gujarat. They were sent the reminder for sending their feedback after 10 to 15 days of sending the questionnaire. This study received 227 responses. So, the response rate in this research is 59%. Total responses are 59 % out of the total sample size requirement. Due to constraint of time limit, this study could not collect the responses as per sample size requirement, which is considered as very good in this kind of survey


Based on the collected data, analysis will be made to find out relation of between various criteria for manufacturers or supplier, contractor and developers for selection of Formwork with the help of statistical some computational criteria for selection process of formwork in South Gujarat region


The all ranking indices explained earlier were used to rank delay causes from viewpoints of the three parties (Developers’, Contractors and suppliers). Total 227 respondents participated in this survey. These respondents included 72 Developers’, 114 contractors and 41 suppliers.The ranking by Spss is determined for developer’s, Contractors and suppliers Individually as well as Ranking for Overall Respondents is also calculated.


Total 13 factors affecting selection of formwork were identified through literature study & experts opinion. As per population of stakeholder in district of South Gujarat region total 380 numbers of respondents were required. Due to time constraints, it was possible to distribute 227 questionnaires to stakeholders. This study received 227 responses.
So, the response rate is 59%. Respondents were comprised of 114 contractors, 72 developers and 72 suppliers the collected data was analyzed through Relative Importance Index technique. The major conclusions arrived are:Erection and dismantling time is found at prime importance for the Adoption level of form work.Wooden and steel frameworks are at maximum usage with 50% and 49% respectively. Relatively Cost wise reduction and Quality assurance are expected from construction industry at adoption level.Wooden and steel frameworks are at higher acceptance from the Formwork availability itself and involved labour supply point of view.Steel Framework is at higher demand at labour level in at various suitability of construction. The observed constraints in adoption of wooden formwork (percentagewise) in descending order are difficulties in transportation (15%), Erection and dismantling and Quality measure (14%), life span (13%), No confidence and inaccessible to supply (12%) Cost and time factor (10%).The observed constraints in adoption of steel formwork (percentagewise) in descending order are difficulties in transportation (15%), life span (14%), inaccessible to supply (13%) , Erection and dismantling and Quality measure and time factors, time factor (12%), No confidence and Cost (11%).The most observed constraints in adoption of Aluminium formwork are lack of confidence at implementation, cost factor as well as requirement of skilled labours. .


[1] Ashok Mandal, "Form working & Formwork- Maintenance &Safety", CE & CR, August 2006, Vol. 19, No. 8, Pg. 46-50.

[2] Dulaimi, M., 1995. The challenge of innovation in construction. Building Research and Information,23: 106-109

[3] D.M.Wijesekara “Cost Effective and Speedy Construction for High-Rise Buildings in SriLanka by Using Aluminium Panel System Formworks” ACEPS – 2012

[4] Hanna A. S. & San vido V.E. , “ An interactive knowledge based on formwork selection system for building”, Computer integrated construction, 1989

[5] Henk, M. Vermande and Peter-Hein Van Mulligen,1999. Construction costs in the Netherlands in an international context. Construction Manag. And Econom., 17: 269-283.

[6] Hurd M. K. “Formwork for concrete”, American concrete institute, 1915, 6th edition

[7] Hurd, M.K. (1989). Formwork for Concrete, 6th ed. American Concrete Institute, Detroit, MI.

[8] K.p.raghavan,S.natarajan,Dr.V.thamilarasu “Formwork management in construction” indian society for technical education (iste)

[9] Ketan Shah, " Modular formwork for faster, economical and quality construction", Indian Concrete Journal, July 2005, Volume 79,Pg.6-23

[10] Michel kapp& Gerhard Girmscheid“Empirical study reveals deficits in the choice of formwork” W065/w055Committees Walker, D. H. T. (1997) Choosing an appropriate research methodology. Construction Management & Economics, 15, 149.

[11] Miss. Patel DhanashriSuryakant, Prof. Desai D B “Emerging Trends in Formwork - Cost Analysis & Effectiveness of Mivan Formwork over the Conventional Formwork” IOSR Journal of Mechanical and Civil Engineering (IOSR-JMCE) ISSN: 2278-1684

[12] NuzulAzamHaron, Ir. SalihuddinHassim, Mohd. RazaliAbd. Kadir and MohdSalehJaafar “Building Cost Comparison Between Conventional and Formwork System:A Case Study of Four-storey School Buildings in Malaysia” American Journal of Applied Sciences 2 (4): 819-823, 2005 ISSN 1546-9239

[13] Raymond W. W. M. , “Application of formwork for high rise and complex building structures-Hong kong cases”, Division of building science & technology, city university of Hong kong

[14] Sameer S. Malvankar Factors Affecting the Selection, Economics Involved in Formwork” The Masterbuilder - July 2013 THESIS

[15] Alan Jon Van Niekerk Mr. J.H. Cruywagen “Concrete Elements: Timber Faced Formwork Systems Versus Steel Faced Formwork Systems, And Which Is Truly Better For The Contractor” October 2009

[16] Belden Nago, “Optimizing The Performance And Cost Of Formwork Massachusetts Institute Of Technology June 1998

[17] H.D.bambhava, MrJ.J.bhavsar, MrJ.R.pitroda “study on temporary structure (scaffolding) used in building construction for mega city of central Gujarat region of India” B.V.M engineering collage vallabhvidhyanagar, April 2013

[18] FarhoudDelijani “The Evaluation Of Changes In Concrete Properties Due To Fabric Formwork” University Of Manitoba Winnipeg 2010 By FarhoudDelijani

[19] Tanyaw Bin “Managing Quality In The Construction Of Formwork “ University Technology Malaysia April 2010