Department of Pharmacy, The University of Science and Technology, Chittagong, Bangladesh
Received: 25-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. JHCP-22-74202; Editor assigned: 29-Aug-2022, Pre QC No. JHCP-22-74202 (PQ); Reviewed: 12-Sep-2022, QC No. JHCP-22-74202; Revised: 21-Sep-2022, Manuscript No. JHCP-22-74202 (R); Published: 30-Sep-2022, DOI: 10.4172/2347-226X.8.5.003.
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Cardiology is a branch of medicine that deals with issues relating to the heart and circulatory system. The medical diagnosis and treatments addressed by this field include electrophysiology, valvular heart disease, congenital heart defects, coronary artery disease, and heart failure. Cardiologists, a subspecialty of internal medicine, are doctors who specialize in this area of medicine. Cardiologists who specialize in treating children are known as pediatric cardiologists. Cardiothoracic surgeons and cardiac surgeons are medical professionals that specialize in heart surgery. They are both subspecialties of general surgery.
The science of understanding, identifying, and managing the electrical processes of the heart is known as cardiac electrophysiology. Invasive (intracardiac) catheter recording of both spontaneous activity and cardiac responses to preprogramed electrical stimulation is typically utilized to study these phenomena (PES). These investigations are carried out to analyze complex arrhythmias, clarify symptoms, examine aberrant electrocardiograms, determine the likelihood of future arrhythmia development, and formulate a treatment plan. Along with diagnostic and prognostic procedures, these procedures increasingly employ therapeutic techniques (usually radiofrequency ablation or cryoablation).
Diseases of cardiac system
Coronary artery disease: One of the causes of sudden cardiac death, coronary artery disease, commonly referred to as "ischemic heart disease," is a group of illnesses that includes stable angina, unstable angina, myocardial infarction, and other conditions. It is the most prevalent kind of the group of cardiovascular disorders. Chest pain or discomfort, which may radiate to the shoulder, arm, back, neck, or jaw, is a typical symptom. Symptoms often last a short while, are brought on by physical activity or emotional stress, and subside with rest. Additionally, there may be no symptoms at all and shortness of breath. Heart attacks might occasionally be the initial symptom. Heart failure or an irregular heartbeat is examples of additional complications.
Cardiac arrhythmia: Cardiac arrhythmia, commonly referred to as "cardiac dysrhythmia" or "abnormal heartbeat," is a set of diseases in which the heartbeat has an irregular rhythm or is excessively rapid or too slow. Heart rates that beats excessively fast—above 100 beats per minute in adults—are referred to as tachycardia, and too slow—below 60 beats per minute— referred as bradycardia. Numerous arrhythmias are symptomless. There may be palpitations when symptoms are present. Lightheadedness, fainting, shortness of breath, or chest pain may be more severe symptoms. While the majority of arrhythmias are not dangerous, some can increase a person's risk of developing complications including heart failure or a stroke. Some of them could cause cardiac arrest.
Hypertension: A chronic medical illness called hypertension, commonly referred to as "high blood pressure," is characterized by a consistently high blood pressure in the arteries. Symptoms of high blood pressure are uncommon. Long-term high blood pressure is a significant risk factor for coronary artery disease, stroke, heart failure, peripheral vascular disease, eyesight loss, and chronic kidney disease.
Lifestyle decisions may increase the risk of hypertension. These include eating too much salt, being overweight, smoking, and drinking. In addition, various illnesses or the negative effects of medications can contribute to hypertension.
Congenital cardiac defects can be prevented with the rubella vaccine, salt iodization, and folic acid addition to particular foods. Others may benefit from catheter-based therapies or open heart surgery. Multiple operations can be necessary from time to time. Heart problems are the most frequently occurring defect. In 2013, they had an impact on 34.3 million individuals worldwide. They have an effect on 4 to 75 out of every 1,000 live babies, depending on how they are identified. Every 1,000 people, 6 to 19, experience moderate to severe problems.