All submissions of the EM system will be redirected to Online Manuscript Submission System. Authors are requested to submit articles directly to Online Manuscript Submission System of respective journal.

Urinary Retention: Causes, Symptoms, Epidemiology and Treatment

Luca Hashim*

Department of Medicine, Isfahan University of Technology, Khomeyni Shahr, Iran

*Corresponding Author:
Luca Hashim Department of Medicine, Isfahan University of Technology, Khomeyni Shahr, Iran E-mail:

Received: 28-Feb-2023, Manuscript No. JCMCS-23- 92385; Editor assigned: 02- Mar-2023, Pre QC No. JCMCS- 23-92385 (PQ); Reviewed: 16- Mar-2023, QC No. JCMCS-23- 92385; Revised: 23-Mar- 2023, Manuscript No. JCMCS- 23-92385 (R); Published: 30- Mar-2023, DOI: 10.4172/J Clin Med Case Stud.8.1.004. 

Citation: Hashim L. Urinary Retention: Causes, Symptoms, Epidemiology and Treatment. J Clin Med Case Stud. 2023;8:004.

Copyright: © 2023 Hashim L. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

Visit for more related articles at Journal of Clinical and Medical Case Studies


Urinary retention is a condition where the bladder fails to fully evacuate, leading to a persistent feeling of needing to urinate. This condition can affect both men and women, but it is more common in men due to prostate enlargement. In this manuscript, we will explore the causes, symptoms, and treatment of urinary retention.


There are two types of urinary retention; acute and chronic. Acute urinary retention occurs suddenly and requires immediate medical attention. Chronic urinary retention, on the other hand, develops slowly over time and can be caused by various factors.

Prostate enlargement: This is the most common cause of urinary retention in men. As the prostate gland grows, it can exert pressure on the urethra, making it difficult for urine to pass through.

Neurological disorders: Conditions such as multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and spinal cord injuries can interfere with the signals between the brain and the bladder, leading to urinary retention.

Medications: Certain medications, such as antihistamines, decongestants, and antidepressants, can affect bladder function and cause urinary retention.

Constipation: When the rectum is full of stool, it can put pressure on the bladder and cause urinary retention.


The symptoms of urinary retention can vary depending on the severity of the condition. Some common symptoms include: Difficulty starting urination, weak urine stream, frequent urination, inability to completely empty the bladder, pain or discomfort in the lower abdomen.


The treatment of urinary retention depends on the underlying cause and the severity of the condition. Some common treatments include:

Medications: In some cases, medications can help relax the bladder muscles and improve urine flow.

Catheterization: This involves inserting a tube into the bladder to drain urine. Catheterization can be either permanent or temporary, depending on the underlying cause of urinary retention.

Surgery: If the underlying cause of urinary retention is prostate enlargement, surgery may be necessary to remove the excess tissue.

Lifestyle changes: Making certain lifestyle changes, such as reducing fluid intake before bedtime, can help alleviate urinary retention symptoms.


In older men, urinary retention is a prevalent condition. BPH is the most typical cause of urine retention. This condition develops at age 50 and symptoms may appear after 10 years-15 years. The narrowing of the bladder neck caused by BPH, a progressive condition, causes urine retention. Around 10% of males at the age of 70% and 33% by the eighth decade of life have BPH in some form. Even while BPH seldom results in unexpected urine retention, the disease can become acute when specific drugs, such as antihypertensives, antihistamines, and Parkinson's medications, are taken, as well as during spinal anesthesia or a stroke.

Prostate infection is the most typical cause of urine retention in young men (acute prostatitis). Low back pain, penile discharge, a low-grade temperature, and the inability to pass urine are the symptoms of the illness, which is contracted during sexual activity. Because so many do not seek treatment, it is unknown how many people have acute prostatitis. In the US, acute prostatitis causes urinary difficulties in at least 1%-3% of men under the age of 40 years. The majority of doctors and other medical professionals are familiar with these illnesses.