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Various types of Public Health Intervention and Its Efficacy

Aditya Mahset*

Department of Food, Nutrition and Dietetics, Gifu University, Gifu, Japan

*Corresponding Author:
Aditya Mahset
Department of Food,
Nutrition and Dietetics,
Gifu University, Gifu,
Japan
E-mail: [email protected]

Received date:26-Aug-2022, Manuscript No. JMAHS-22-76955; Editor assigned: 30-Aug-2022, PreQC No. JMAHS-22-76955 (PQ); Reviewed: 13-Sep-2022, QC No.JMAHS-22-76955; Revised: 20- Sep-2022, Manuscript No. JMAHS 22-76955(R); Published: 27-Sep 2022, DOI: 10.4172/2319-9865 .11.5.002

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Description:

A public health intervention is any activity or program that seeks to promote the mental and physical health of the general population. Public health interventions can be carried out by a range of organizations, including governmental and Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs). Screening programmers, vaccination, food and water supplements, and health promotion are examples of common interventions. Obesity, drug, cigarette, and alcohol usage, as well as the spread of infectious diseases such as HIV, are all common topics for public health interventions.

A policy may qualify as a public health intervention if it avoids disease at both the individual and community levels and has a beneficial influence on public health.

Health interventions can be carried out by a range of groups, including public health agencies and private companies. Such interventions can take place at many scales, such as the global, national, or local levels. Websites, audio/video messaging, and other forms of mass media can reach the entire population, or specific groups can be affected by administrative action, such as improving the availability of healthy food in schools.

Screening

Screening is the process of evaluating a group of people who meet particular criteria (such as age, gender, or sexual activity) for a disease or problem. Many types of screening are considered public health interventions. During pregnancy, for example, moms are routinely tested for HIV and Hepatitis B. Detection during pregnancy can help prevent the disease from being transmitted to the mother after birthing.

Vaccination

Vaccination programs are among the most common and effective types of public health initiatives. Programs are typically in the form of recommendations and are administered by governmental health departments or nationalized health care systems. In the United States, for example, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention establish a vaccine schedule, and most private health plans cover these vaccinations. The NHS in the United Kingdom decides and administers vaccination guidelines. NGOs may also be involved in supporting or implementing vaccination programs; for example, the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation aid governments in Pakistan, Nigeria, and Afghanistan with polio immunization administration.

Supplementation

Nutrient supplementation in food or water can help to prevent vitamin deficiency and other disorders. Supplementation may be mandated by legislation or optional. Interventions include the following: • Iodized salt can help prevent goitre • Folic acid in wheat flour to prevent the birth disorder spina bifida • Fluoridated water to avoid tooth decay • Vitamin D milk to avoid rickets

Behavioral

Interventions intended to change the behavior of individuals can be especially challenging. One such Intervention aimed at changing people's behavior might be especially difficult. One such type is health promotion, in which education and the media are used to promote healthy behaviors such as eating healthy foods (to prevent obesity), wearing condoms (to reduce the spread of STDs), or ending open defecation in underdeveloped nations (for example in India the campaign Swatch Bharat Mission). The employment of legislation to criminalize particular behaviors, such as mandatory vaccination programs and the criminalization of HIV transmission, can also be considered a public health intervention. Such actions, however, are often contentious, particularly in the case of HIV criminalization, where there is evidence that it may be counterproductive. Tobacco goods are taxed in the United States and New Zealand, and sugared drinks are taxed in the United Kingdom.

Evaluating efficacy

It is critical to evaluate and anticipate the success of a public health intervention, as well as calculate cost effectiveness. In an ideal world, an intervention would reduce morbidity and mortality. There are several systematic methods available to aid in the development of such interventions, such as Intervention Mapping.

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