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Editorial Open Access



A vaccine, providing active and protective immunity against a target disease, contains an agent that originated from and/or resembles a disease-causing microorganism. It is often made from a weakened or inactivated microbe, its toxins, or one of its nucleotides, peptides or proteins. Vaccines can be prophylactic to ameliorate or better prevent the effects of a wild-type pathogen, or therapeutic against likely cancers. To date, the World Health Organization lists twenty-seven preventable infections for which vaccines are available [1]—far less than what our society needs.


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