Polymeric Nano formulations in the Management of HIV Associated Neurocognitive Disorder
Background: HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) is one of the most prevalent comorbidities in the era of ART. The reported HAND prevalence ranges from 21% to 86%. The use of encapsulated nanosized antiretrovirals in various polymers has shown potential for enhanced permeation into the CNS and other latent viral reservoirs thus providing hope for prevention and treatment of neurocognitive disorders in HIV positive patients.
Main text: Methodology HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorder (HAND) has been used to describe the spectrum of neurocognitive dysfunction associated with HIV infection. Neurocognitive disorders are a result of a deficit in neurological activity. There is no specific treatment for HAND;however, ART has been used to reverse the disease process and improve cognitive function. Polymeric nanoformulations are solid colloidal systems consisting of a polymer matrix loaded with active therapeutic compounds within or adsorbed on it. Such compounds have particle sizes ranging from 1 to 1000 nm. Polymeric nanoformulations offer the potential for controlled release of a range of hydrophilic, hydrophobic drugs, vaccines, peptides, and biological macromolecules via several routes of administration.
Conclusion: Active targeting with PNPs has yielded promising results in preclinical studies and some cases early clinical trials. There is a need for further studies on polymeric nanoformulations for management of HAND with the potential for eliminating latent viral reservoirs and formulation of novel antiretroviral that is safe, effective, easily administered in adult and pediatric HIV positive populations.
Karamot O Oyediran