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A Secure Erasure Code-Based Multi Cloud Architecture with Privacy and Preservation

Kousalya K1 and Nagajothi A2
  1. PG Scholar, Department of CSE, Karpagam University, Coimbatore, Tamil nadu, India
  2. Assistant Professor, Department of CSE, Karpagam University, Coimbatore, Tamil nadu, India
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Abstract

Cloud storage architecture will have a collection of storage servers with higher end configuration which will provides long-term storage services over the Internet and also for the cloud storage system. Here storing and retrieving the data in a third party’s cloud system causes serious problems and conflict over data confidentiality during the data transactions. Whenever third party storage will involved with the multi cloud server this conflict will occur naturally. But general encryption processor and verifier schemes protect data confidentiality during the transaction of dual execution. In this paper, we propose a secured threshold proxy re-encryption server and integrate it with a decentralized erasure code such that a secure distributed storage system is formulated. The main technical contribution is that the proxy re-encryption scheme supports encoding operations along with a key over encrypted messages and forwarding operations over encoded and encrypted messages. This method is implemented for secured data forwarding. During data forwarding a proxy server will be created virtually to access the encrypted data from the sender side. This makes less traffic and the original data content will not get affected during the time of data transaction. After the transaction the proxy server will be deleted.

 

Keywords

Proxy re-encryption, data forwarding, decentralized erasure code, verifier scheme

INTRODUCTION

Basically cloud storage architecture will have a collection of storage servers with higher end configuration which will provides long-term storage services over the Internet and also for the cloud storage system. Proxy re-encryption scheme [5] provides security improvements over other approaches used earlier. The main advantage of this scheme is that they are unidirectional and do not require delegators to reveal their entire secret key to anyone or even interact with the delegate, in order to allow a proxy to re-encrypt their cipher texts. In schemes, only a limited amount of trust is placed in the proxy. For example, it is not able to decrypt the cipher texts it re-encrypts, and we prove our schemes secure even when the proxy publishes all the re-encryption information it knows. This enables a number of applications that would not be practical if the proxy needed to be fully trusted. At the early years, the Network-Attached Storage (NAS) and the Network File System (NFS) provide extra storage devices over the network such that a user can access the storage devices via network connection. Afterward, many improvements on scalability, robustness, efficiency, and security were proposed. Here storing and retrieving the data in a third party’s cloud system causes serious problems and conflict over data confidentiality during the data transactions. Whenever third party storage will involved with the multi cloud server this conflict will occur naturally. Even though there are various methods are available to overcome this problem like cryptography, key encryption and etc. But general encryption processor and verifier schemes protect data confidentiality during the transaction of dual execution, but along with this process the main drawback will, it limits the functionality of the storage system. This is because a few operations only supported over encrypted data. These methods will cause failure. In order to constructing a secure storage system that supports multiple functions is challenging when the storage system is distributed and has no central authority. The application logic proposes a secured threshold proxy re-encryption server and integrates it with a decentralized erasure code such that a secure distributed storage system is formulated. In this method multiple users can interact with the storage system. Users can upload their data in to the distributed storage system. The distributed storage system not only supports secure and robust data storage and retrieval, but also lets a user forward his data in the storage servers to another user without retrieving the data back. This makes the ownership data unused and secured during the time of retrieval. The main technical contribution is that the proxy re-encryption scheme supports encoding operations along with a key over encrypted messages, as well as forwarding operations over encoded and encrypted messages. The content in the database will be in the decrypted format. So that even intruder cant able to access the data even they access the database. The encrypted data will become unused even the data obtained by the intruder. This makes the system so stronger. This project deals with fully integrates encrypting, encoding, and forwarding. The application can be shown in both cloud servers as well as in local host as per the environment. The storage and robustness are more flexible with the users. So that user will authorize the sender request to generate the key. Using the authorized one time key sender can access the encrypted file in decrypted format at once. The key will become invalid after one use. This is method is implemented for secured data forwarding. During data forwarding a proxy server will be created virtually to access the encrypted data from the sender side. The original data from the cloud server will be transmitted to the proxy virtually. This makes less traffic and the original data content will not get affected during the time of data transaction. After the transaction the proxy server will be deleted. An erasure code provides redundancy without the overhead of strict replication. Erasure code divide an object into k fragments and recode them into l fragments, where l>k. we call r=k/l <1 rate of encoding. A rate r code increases storage cost by a factor of 1/r. The key property of erasure code is that the original object can be reconstructed from any m fragments. For example using an r=1/4 encoding on a block divides the block into k=16 fragments and encode the original m fragments into l=64 fragments; increasing the storage cost by a factor of four. Erasure coding in a malicious environment requires the precise identification of failed or corrupted fragments. Without the ability to identify try to reconstruct the block; that is, (l, k) combinations. As a result, the system corrupted fragments, here is potentially a factorial combination of fragments to needs to detect when a fragment has been corrupted and discard it. A secure verification hashing scheme can serve the dual purpose of identifying and verifying each fragment. It is necessary the case that any m correctly verified fragments can be used to reconstruct the block. Such a scheme is likely to increase the bandwidth and storage requirements, but can be shown to still be many times less than replication.

RELATED WORK

Lin et al. [12] are defined “A Secure Decentralized Erasure Code for Distributed Network Storage,” Decentralized Erasure Codes are linear codes with a specific randomized structure inspired by network coding on random bipartite graphs, they are optimally sparse, and lead to reduced communication, storage and computation cost over random linear coding. Kallahalla et al. [11] defined “Plautus: Scalable Secure File Sharing on Untrusted Storage”, use of cryptographic primitives to protect and share files. Plautus features highly scalable key management while allowing individual users to retain direct control over who gets access to their files and mechanisms in Plautus to reduce the number of cryptographic keys exchanged between users by using file groups, distinguish file read and write access, handle user revocation efficiently, and allow an untrusted server to authorize file writes. Lin et al. [10] defined “A Secure Erasure Code-Based Cloud Storage System With Secure Data Forwarding” A decentralized erasure code is suitable for use in a distributed storage system , after the message symbols are send to storage servers each storage server independently computes a codeword for received message symbols and stores it. Amritha et al. [1] proposed “Threshold Proxy Re-Encryption Scheme and Decentralized Erasure Code in Cloud Storage with Secure Data Forwarding” proxy re-encryption supports encoding operation and forwarding operation over encrypted message. It increases security and reduces time and cost for particular operation. This method is fully integrates encrypting, encoding and forwarding. Priyadharshini et al. [14] proposed “A Secure Code Based Cloud Storage System Using Proxy Re-Encryption Scheme in Cloud Computing” The threshold proxy re-encryption scheme supports encoding, forwarding, and partial decryption operations in a distributed way. It is fully decentralized with storage server performing encoding and re-encryption process and each key server perform partial decryption. Integrity checking is important functionality about cloud storage. After a user stores data in data storage, he/she no longer possess the data at hand. The user may want to check whether the data are properly stored in storage servers. Encryption technique is used to convert plain text into cipher text. Proxy re-encryption provides data confidentiality in cloud storage system. Decentralized erasure code is used to compute codeword for each message symbol. Ateniese et al. [2] proposed “Improved Proxy Re-Encryption Schemes with Applications to Secure Distributed Storage” that present new reencryption schemes that realize a stronger notion of security, and demonstrate the usefulness of proxy re-encryption as a method of adding access control to a secure file system. Performance measurements of our experimental file system demonstrate that proxy re-encryption can work effectively in practice.

SYSTEM MODEL

a. Proxy re-encryption in privacy scheme
Proxy re-encryption plays important role in the privacy scheme. This is because request from another user will accept by cloud server, as well as the cloud server will produce another request to data owner. After the authorizing the request from the data owner a 64 bit key will be generated for data visualization. Here proxy re encryption will be successfully implemented in the privacy scheme. The encrypted key will in the pending request, until another user accesses the key to view the data of the data owner. Proxy re encryption keys is one use key. So that keys cannot able to duplicate. Moreover in case of hacking the key it will take nearly 18 days to 45 days. But the new user will use the key within time. Else the key request will be deleted.
Data owner Store the original data into the cloud storage server. The data will encrypt and stored in the cloud storage server. Anyone can view the uploaded data. But the data will be in the encrypted format. Another user can only view the file name of the data. And another user will send request to the cloud server to view the data. Cloud server will forward the request from the user to the data owner. Data owner wants to accept the request from the cloud server. Cloud server will forward a de encrypted key to the user. Simultaneously cloud server will create a virtual server and decrypts the data from the cloud storage server. User can enter the de encrypted key to the proxy server to view the original data. The key will be valid for one time only. After the data view from the proxy server, the virtual data will be deleted automatically.
b. Secure Forwarding for preservation scheme (VPS)
The encrypted data will be decrypted here for the virtual views in the virtual proxy server. This can be done through the proxy re encrypted key. After the encrypted key used by the user, a virtual server will be created for data visualization purpose. One once the key used the VPS will be deleted. So that both privacy and preservation scheme implemented successfully. After data owner authorized the sender request. Key will be generate from the cloud side and sent to the user. Proxy server will be created on user request. Data in the cloud storage will be decrypted. Decrypted data will be sent to the proxy server. Proxy server will be deleted after data visualization.
c. Decentralized erasure code
Decentralized Erasure Codes, which are linear codes with a specific randomized structure inspired by network coding on random bipartite graphs, they are optimally sparse, and lead to reduced communication, storage and computation cost over random linear coding. It is a erasure code that independently computes codeword for each received message symbol, thus the encoding process splits n parallel tasks of generating codeword symbol and stores it.
d. Encryption
This is used to encrypt the plain text into a cipher text. Cipher text is produced along with a single key. This is used to convert the cipher text again into plain text. The data is encrypted with single key using random key generation algorithm. Storing data in a third party does not provide confidentiality in cloud storage. Data confidentiality is provided by proxy re-encryption scheme.

CONCLUSION

Implementations of traditional systems have resulted in crashes, DOS attacks and unavailability. In the proposed system the threshold proxy re-encryption scheme supports encrypting, forwarding and decryption operations in a distributed way. A secure distributed storage system is formulated by integrating proxy re-encryption scheme with a decentralized erasure code. The proxy re-encryption supports not only the expected encoding operation over encrypted message but also the forwarding operation over encoded and encrypted message.

Figures at a glance

Figure 1
Figure 1
 

References


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