AIDS Related Complexes (ARCs) can be Treated by Herbal Medicine: A Prospective Review | Open Access Journals

ISSN: 2320-0189

AIDS Related Complexes (ARCs) can be Treated by Herbal Medicine: A Prospective Review

Mohammad Nazrul Islam*

Department of Unani Medicine, Hamdard University, Bangladesh

*Corresponding Author:
Mohammad Nazrul Islam
Department of Unani Medicine, Hamdard University, Bangladesh
Tel: 01732780912.
E-mail: dr_sayemnazrul@yahoo.com

Received date: 05/12/2016 Accepted date: 22/04/2017 Published date: 25/04/2017

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Abstract

Acquired Immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a serious pandemic public health problem caused by Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV). It usually breaks down the acquired immune system and leading to develop life threatening opportunistic infections, neurological disorders and unusual malignancies. AIDs can be categorized into four broad headings such as initial infection with virus and development of antibodies, asymptomatic carrier stage, AIDS related complexes (ARCs) and AIDS. From initial infection to development of sign and symptoms are called window period. During the window period, progressive loss of acquired immunity leads to develop a highly susceptible host environment for different pathogenic agents. For the consequences, different opportunistic organisms are harboring in the host and presenting AIDS related complexes like fever, weight loss, prolonged diarrhoea, minor opportunistic infections, and lymphadenopathy. It has been claimed that people who are died in the AIDS are not due to HIV but due to ARCs. Until, no significantly effective medicine has been invented in the world to minimize the consequences of ARCs. Few studies suggested that some herbal medicines have shown significant effect to reduce the morbidity and mortality of ARCs. It is an initial step to assimilate the scientific evidences in the article for drug development to minimize the drastic effects of ARCs.

Keywords

AIDS related complexes (ARCs), Acquired immuno deficiency syndrome (AIDS), Opportunistic infections

Introduction

Acquired Immuno-deficiency syndrome (AIDS) is a serious pandemic public health problem caused by Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV) which breaks down the body’s immune system and life threatening opportunistic infections, neurological disorders and unusual malignancies. In 1986, HIV was called lymph adenopathy virus (LAV). After that, it was recognized as Human T cell lymphotrophic virus (HTLV-type III). International committee was given the new name of the virus as Human Immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Consequences of AIDS can be categorized into four broad stages such as initial infection with virus and development of antibodies, asymptomatic carrier stage, AIDS related complexes (ARCs) and AIDS. From initial infection to development of signs and symptoms are called window period. During the window period, progressive loss of acquired immunity leads to develop a highly susceptible host environment for different pathogenic agents. For the consequences, different opportunistic- pathogenic organism are harboring in the host and develop AIDS related complexes like fever, weight loss, prolonged diarrhea, minor opportunistic infections and lymphadenopathy. It has been claimed that people who are died in the AIDS are not due to HIV but due to ARCs. Until, no significantly effective medicine has been invented in the world to cure the ARCs. Few studies suggested that some herbal medicines have shown significant effect to reduce the morbidity and mortality of ARCs.

Evidence Based Herbal Medicine for ARCs

Nigella sativa (black seed) have shown significantly effective against lethal viral infections of HIV. Evidence based study showed that sero-reversion of HIV with the treatment of black seed extract and found no detectable HIV virus or antibodies against HIV in their blood serum both during and after the therapy [1] (Figure 1).

botanical-sciences-Nigella-sativa

Figure 1. Flower and seed of Nigella sativa.

Hypoxis hemerocallidea (African potato) and Sutherlandia are very effective for management of HIV [2] (Figure 2).

botanical-sciences-Hypoxis-hemerocallidea

Figure 2. Slice of Hypoxis hemerocallidea (African potato) and Sutherlandia.

Stephania venosa Spreng (40 mg to 60 mg), Stephania suberosa Forman (40 mg to 60 mg), Stephania glabra Roxb. Miers. (40 mg to 60 mg), Hedychium coronarium Roem (40 mg to 60 mg), Zingiber officinalis Roscoe (30 mg to 50 mg) and Curcurma amada (30 mg to 50 mg) herbal composition improves the physical condition of AIDS patients and can alleviate or cease the symptoms of most opportunistic infections [3].

Andrographis paniculata (150 mg/kg; aqueous extracts of leaves diterpene lactones) helps to inhibition of HIV protease and reverse transcriptase, inhibit HIV-infected cells from arresting G2 phase in which viral replication is optimal. Inhibit cell to cell transmission, viral replication and syncytia formation in HIV infected cells [4] (Figure 3).

botanical-sciences-Andrographis-paniculate

Figure 3. Andrographis paniculate.

Galanthus nivalis and Hippeastrum hybrids ( G. nivalis agglutinin, Hippeastrum hybrid agglutinin and Monocot mannose binding lectins) are potent inhibitors that stop the spread of HIV among lymphocytes by targeting gp 120 envelop glycoprotein. It is also found that MBLs has prominent anti-HIV activity [4] (Figure 4).

botanical-sciences-Hippeastrum-hybrids

Figure 4. Galanthus nivalis and Hippeastrum hybrids.

Rhus succedanea (Biflavonoids, robustaflavone and hinokiflavone) have strong inhibitory action for polymerase of HIV-1 reverse transcriptase [4] (Figure 5).

botanical-sciences-Rhus-succedanea

Figure 5. Rhus succedanea.

Ancistrocladus korupensis (Michellamines A and B) have proven Anti-HIV -1and HIV-2 activities by inhibiting reverse transcriptase and at later stages by inhibiting cellular fusion and syncitum transformation [4] (Figure 6).

botanical-sciences-Ancistrocladus-korupensis

Figure 6. Ancistrocladus korupensis.

Allium sativum (Garlic) have potential effect on management of cryptococcal meningitis. It has been shown that concomitant use of garlic can reduce detrimental effects on the plasma concentrations of saquinavir and indinavir [5].

Radix angelica sinensis (root) have shown effective for reducing morbidity, increasing CD4+ count and delaying disease progression [6-8].

Coumarins have shown anti-HIV-1 protease activity [9-11].

Aloe vera (1200 mg leaf juice)- have shown significant efwfect on increase in the T4 cell count (which reflects a boosting of the immune system) and a drop in the P-24 core antigen activity [12].

Momardica charantia (Momardica Anti-HIV protein, Alpha momarcharin and momardicosides ) is having RT activity and inhibits HIV-1 infection [12].

Phyllanthus niruri (Whole plant; phyllanthin, hypophyllanthin, Rapendusinic acid monosodium salt) have shown significant effect on HIV-1 inhibitors and Inhibit HIV-1 RT [12] .

Terminallia chebula (Fruit; Gallic acid, Ellagic acid, Chebulic acid and Galloyl glucoses)- have shown significant effect on HIV- 1 Integrase and Inhibitor of HIV-1 Protease [12].

Glycyrrhiza glabra (Roots; Glycyrrhizin) extract have potential effect on Inhibit HIV induce plaque formation.

Punica granatum (Bark punicalin and Punicoretin) have found significant effect on HIV-1 RT activity.

Conclusion

It has been proved that nature is having all remedies to combat AIDS and ARCs related morbidity and mortality. We have to search, we have to know, we have to identify and we have to apply appropriate technology to evaluate new molecules, new metabolites or active compounds for reducing the catastrophic effects of HIV and AIDS. It was observed that 63.5% of AIDS patients had used herbal medicine after HIV diagnosis. It is an initiative to provide attention on therapeutic efficacy of herbal drugs for management of ARCs to the scientific communities.

References