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S.Bharathi^{1}, M.SunandhaPreethi^{2}

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In today‟s world there is a great need for low power design and area efficient high performance in DIP (Digital Image Processing) systemIn this paper the proposed method presents a parallel singlerail selftimed adder. It uses recursive method for performing multi bit binary addition. This design attains good performance without any special speedup circuitry. A practical implementation is provided along with a completion detection unit. The implementation is regular and does not have any practical limitations of high fan outs. The recursive method based adder consumes least power among other Selftimed adders. In our work this can be reduced with proposed adder. This technique presents a preprocessing and post processing adder to minimize the multiplier technique. A high fanin gate is required though but this is unavoidable for asynchronous logic and is managed by connecting the transistors in parallel. Simulations have been performed using cadence tool and superiority of the proposed approach over existing asynchronous adders. In this proposed system we are using a parallel prefix adder it is used to reduce the power consumption, area efficiently .Simulation of this technique is carried out by the cadence tool CADENCE GPDK 180nm Technology
Keywords 
Asynchronous circuits, binary adder. CMOS design digital arithmetic, multiplier technique. 
INTRODUCTION 
Low power has emerged as a principal theme in todayÃ¢ÂÂs electronics industry. The need for low power has caused a major paradigm shift where power dissipation has become as important a consideration as performance and area. So this Binary addition is the single most important operation that a processor performs. Polonky et al. (1999) proposed an selftimed adder based on DI RSFQ primitives Selftimed or asynchronous design solves these problems by removing a global clockMost of the adders have been designed for synchronous circuits even though there is a strong interest in clockless/asynchronous processors/circuits. .Asynchronous circuits do not assume any quantization of time. Therefore, they hold great potential for logic design as they are free from several problems of clocked (synchronous) circuits. Aniset et al. (2002) presented an theory based on PMOS devices need to be sized up to attain the gateÃ¢ÂÂs performanceIn principle, logic flow in asynchronous circuits is controlled by a requestacknowledgment handshaking protocol to establish a pipeline in the absence of clocks. Explicit handshaking blocks for small elements, such as bit adders, are expensive. Cornelius et al. (2006) presented a new technique these dynamic circuits are often favoured in high performance designs because of the speed advantage offered over static CMOS logic circuitTherefore, it is implicitly and efficiently managed using dualrail carry propagation in adders. In this principle, logic flow in asynchronous circuits is mainly controlled by a requestacknowledgment handshaking protocol to establish a pipeline in the absence of clocks. Explicit handshaking blocks for small elements, such as bit adders, are expensive. Choudary et al. (2010) presented a technique based on which they proposed an addition operation since in ALU all other arithmetic operations can be derived interms of addition operationonlyTherefore, it is implicitly and efficiently managed using dualrail carry propagation in adders.Selftimed refers to logic circuits that depend on and/or engineer timing assumptions for the correct operation. Selftimed adders have the potential to run faster averaged for dynamic data, as early completion sensing can avoid the need for the worst case bundled delay mechanism of synchronous circuits. 
PIPELINED ADDERS USING SINGLE RAIL ENCODING 
The asynchronou Req/Ack handshake can be used to enable the adder block as well as to establish the flow of carry signalsThese dualrail signals can represent more than two logic values (invalid, 0, 1) and therefore can be used to generate bitlevel acknowledgment when a bit operation is completed. 
DELAY INSENSITIVE ADDERS USING DUAL RAILENCODING 
Delay insensitive (DI) adders are asynchronous adders that assert bundling constraints or DI operationsThere are many variants of DI adders, such as DI ripple carry adder (DIRCA) and DI carry lookahead adder (DICLA). DI adders use dualrail encoding and are assumed to increase complexity 
GENERAL BLOCK DIAGRAM OF PASTA 
The general architecture of the adder is shown in Fig. 1. Theselection input for twoinput multiplexers corresponds to the Req handshake signal and will be a single 0 to 1 transition denoted by SEL. It will initially select the actual operands during SEL = 0 and will switch to feedback/carry paths for subsequent iterations using SEL = 1. The feedback path from the HAs enables the multiple iterations to continue until the completion when all carry signals will assume zero values.C. 
RECURSIVE FORMULA FOR BINARY ADDITION 
PROPOSED ADDER 
The addition of two binary numbers can be formulated as a prefix problem a new technique for high speed in speculative completion The corresponding parallelprefix algorithms can be used for speeding up binary addition and for illustrating and understanding various addition principles. This section introduces a mathematical and visual formalism for prefix problems and algorithms. 
Two categories of prefix algorithms can be distinguished; the serial prefix, and the treePrefix Problems. 
In a prefix problem, n outputs (yn1, yn2, …., y0) are computed from ninputs (xn1, xn2, ….,x0) using an arbitrary associative operator • as follows 
Treeprefix algorithms include parallelism for calculation speedup, and therefore form the category of parallelprefix algorithms. It represents a serial algorithm for solving the prefix problemIn the prefix tree, there are n columns, corresponding to the number of input bits. The gates performing the • operation and which work in parallel are arranged in the same row, and similarly, the same gates connected in series are placed in consecutive rows. Thus, the number of rows m corresponds to the number of binary operations to be evaluated in series. The sum bits, si are finally obtained from a post processing step. 
In the above equation, „.Ã¢ÂÂ operator is applied on two pairs of bits and, these bits represent generate and propagate signals used in addition. The output of the operator is a new pair of bits which is again combined using a dot operator „ Ã¢ÂÂ or semidot operator „ Ã¢ÂÂ with another pairs of bits. This procedural use of dot operator „ Ã¢ÂÂ and semidot operator „ Ã¢ÂÂ creates a prefix tree network which ultimately ends in the generation of all carry signals.In the final step, the sum bits of the adder are generated with the propagate signals of the operand bits and the preceding stage carry bit using a xor gate. Choudary(2008) proposed a new technique for basic arithmetic operation for higher automation The semidot operator „ Ã¢ÂÂ will be present as last computation node in each column of the prefix graph structures, where it is essential to compute only generate term, whose value is the carry generated from that bit to the succeeding iterations 
MAC 
The MultiplyAccumulate Unit (MAC) is the main computational kernel in DIP architectures. The MAC unit determines the power and the speed of the overall system; it always lies in the critical path. Developing high speed and low power MAC is crucial to use DSP in the future WSN. In this work, a fast and low power MAC Unit is proposed for 2DDCT computation. Multiplication involves the generation of partial products, one for each digit in the multiplier, These partial products are then summed to produce the final product The MultiplyAccumulate Unit (MAC) is the main computational kernel in DIP architectures. The MAC unit determines the power and the speed of the overall system; it always lies in the critical path. Developing high speed and low power MAC is crucial to use DSP in the future WSN. In this work, a fast and low power MAC Unit is proposed for 2DDCT computation. Multiplication involves the generation of partial products, one for each digit in the multiplier, These partial products are then summed to produce the final product. 
MUTIPLICATION THROUGH ADDERS 
Let the product register size be 16 bits. Let the multiplicand registers size be 8 bits. Store the multiplier in the least significant half of the product register. Clear the most significant half of the product register. Repeat the following steps for 8 times: 
• If the least significant bit of the product register is "1" then add the multiplicand to the most significant half of the product register. 
• Shift the content of the product register one bit to the right (ignore the shiftedout bit.) 
• Shiftin the carry bit into the most significant bit of the product register 
Multiplier is the main computational kernel in DIP architectures. The Multiplier unit determines the power and the speed of the overall system. In this work, proposed adder based on fast and low complexity Multiplier Unit is proposed.In all DSP and image processing application Multiplier will be the basic unit. The overall performance is fully depends on Adder unit efficiency. Multiplication involves the generation of partial products, one for each digit in the multiplier, These partial products are then summed to produce the final produced. 
SIMULATIONS RESULTS 
Simulations resultsSimulation output is to be obtained by using CADENCE in digital design environment.The adder was designed using multiplication technique.In this method usage the area,power consumption and time are obtained 
Figure 4.1 shows the simulation results of parallel prefix adder. It represents 8 bit hexadecimal values henceclock is not assigned. The timing is varied for simulation the carry and propagate values are described for each input and output values are assigned using the force operation the run time is varied for each simulation. 
Figure 4.10 shows the above result is thesimulation waveform for multiplier technique using proposed adder. The clock and enable operations are performed the clock value is 0 and enable operation is 1the 4 bit are assigned multiplier technique the values are displayed in hexadecimal values the pasta pins act as a a calling function for each operation and run time for each bit is discussed the reset option is 0 the sum and carry operation performs 8 bit representation the sel act as a selection operation for input the product is multiplied using adder the each bit shifts to the previous for shift operation and hence multiplier is achieved 
Figure 1.7 shows the area window for proposed adder and hence area is 1537 for proposed method and hence compared with the existing system the cells are assigned with 64 cells the delay timing is less achieved for proposed system the timing analysis is achieve for high performance the 16 bit values are assigned with hexadecimal and calling function is separately assigned for each module the area is reduced when compared with the existing system using pasta module 
Figure 1.8 shows the RTL view of multiplier output assigned with pasta blocksin the circuit the block are assigned separately for each module and pasta pins act as a calling function for each values in the multiplier technique the separate module act as a calling function for each block finally the product is assigned with each bit in the multiplier technique using multiplication through addition process the mux act as a calling function in the circuit16 bit is assigned for multiplier technique 
CONCLUSION 
A parallel prefix adder design is proposed for overall power consumption. The proposed adder provides overall area and power than the previous methods. The parallel asynchronous self timed adder circuit is efficiently described using a handshaking protocol and also compared with other adders proposed adders. The MAC unit is implemented and the process is achieved efficiently. Simulation results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework in parallel prefix adder using multiplication through addition process. The proposed method is implemented using digital CADANCE environment 
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