Current Review on Genetic Glitch
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy, Hyderabad, Telangana
- *Corresponding Author:
- Bhavani Madhunala
Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis
Malla Reddy College of Pharmacy
Hyderabad, Telangana, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: 04/07/2016; Revised date: 22/07/2016; Accepted date: 28/07/2016
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Genetic Glitches are those which once occur cannot be restored. Glitches can be actually seen in computer programs, Video Games etc. But, here the term ‘Genetic Glitch ‘is used to sort out the things which underwent wrong path at the time of formation of the first Embryo and then its divisions. This is a bit difficult to understand in general words. I will take you in depths of this in order to understand this term Gene Glitch. Because every change that occurs in any part of body of an animal is from the genetic levels of the organism or the gene expressions and mutations. Mutations occur in the genome or the genetic sequence of the person.
DNA, Mutation, Evolutionary processes, Mutagenesis.
Everything we can see has got one thing in common. That is life. It can’t be described but the basic thing essential for an organism to survive is DNA (Deoxy–Ribo Nucleic Acid). A single DNA has over 30000-35000 genes which perform more than 1000000+ functions. But it is said that the functions of 94% of the genes we have is yet a mystery [1-5]. And it is also proved that DNA stores a second layer of information in it. So, from where did life originate. Different people have different theories and explanations for this.
I personally feel that evolution is the best suitable as stated by Sir. Charles Darwin [Father of evolution]. No one actually knows the differences between the facts and myths of Biogenesis. Life was given to us approximately 6.4 Billion years ago [6-10]. The Beginning of everything is big bang. The first sign of life on the Earth is a Carbohydrate. It doesn’t possess life but it facilitated the origin of life, a kick start to what is visible to us today. This was proved by scientists of UK a couple of decades ago.
Experiments on artificial life (Abiogenesis)
Experiment 1: A scientist took some common sugar in a jar filled with half water in it and oxygen as well. He started to heat the jar assuming the normal temperatures [11-13]. The sugars started to form protein like structures in the jar. When observed deeply they were actually amino acids formed artificially.
Experiment 2: Students of California University conducted an experiment to know the formation of life. They performed the experiments in such a place where it was life the earth after big bang. More content of sulphur and oxygen in the atmosphere and they exposed it to excess lightning and phosphorus rains. Result after an year was formation of simplest bacterium with only 500 genes in the total genome of the bacterium. Hence, it’s proved that life can be created and can be transformed as we like [14-17].
Possibilities of Artificial Life (Or) Creation of New Species
Mutations, The only thing that kept us alive or made us evolve from the day the first living creature has appeared on the Earth. The easiest way one can understand what mutations are is through observations. People say practice makes you perfect. Ever thought why? It’s because of mutations and adaptions. Mutagenesis is the term that describes the origins of mutations in an individual [18-21].
Example: No one knows or can understand music by birth; they can neither sing perfectly nor compose music in the infant stages. But as they keep practicing music daily the genetics take over. And it is also proved that gene AVPR1A on the chromosome 12q is only for music perception and gene SLC6A4 on gene 17q is for memorising the music and creating it [22-30]. In the same way mutations keep us help in and getting adapting to everything around us.
This technique is now used to treat some inborn diseases like diabetes and asthma [31-40]. But these can also be used in creating and designing the body the way we like. For example, all he wrestlers and body builders show utmost 40% more Myosin II fibres than normal people. If the gene is edited and the production of these Myosin fibres is alternated then people can get the body they desire of.
This is a new technique that is still in human trials using which the unwanted genes expression can be silenced and the effect can be suppressed [41-45]. Thanks to the new technologies and new tools of bioinformatics developed. CRIPSR/CAS 9 is one that tool that channels the facility to silence the genes.
The Genome Rearrangement has to be done in the embryonic stages of the foetus of animal. Though this is opposed by many ethics and Religious issues but there is a possibility to design a new foetus the way we desire. For example, we can insert the OCA2 gene and substitute it with HERC2 genes [46-50]. OCA2 gene is responsible for blue eyes and whereas HERC2 is for black ones.
We see these in many daily lives of animals. They help most of us to survive the situations and sort out the situations. Examples:
One who leaps a lot grows taller compared to those who don’t. This happens because the Gene has codons and sensors which sense the leaping daily. They sense that the animal must grow a bit taller to reach out for something. GSH is released to facilitate the growth and help the animal [51-60].
Epigenetics: This happens accordingly to atmospherically occurring changes to body of the animal. The simplest
example is Tan. We tan if we go out in the sun. It’s because the genes sense UV radiation contact with the skin of the animal. They are aware of the damage caused by UV [61-68]. So they form melanocytes only at the areas exposed to the son and tan the area. Melanocytes are dense and are hard for UV to penetrate. This mechanism saves the endodermis of the skin and other internal parts [69-72].
No matter what the type of mutation is, everything has got its own glitch [73-77]. Or a Drawback we say. The techniques discussed above could be a boon or a curse, none knows yet.
No matter what we do in our day to day life. Genetics and Glitches are always a part of our life and animal life. The mutations and adaptations facilitate the survival and Instincts we and animals encounter with the environment and nature daily. Genetics, DNA and Mutations. Three main this that help everyone and most of us are unaware of it. They play a major role in the life of every being that survives today. Right from the first day of the appearance of life on earth.
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