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Distance Based Accident Prevention in Intersection Using Vanet

R.Rajesh kumar1, S.Wahida Begum2, M.Manikandan3
  1. P.G. Student, Department of Computer Engineering, Valliammai Engineering College, Chennai, India
  2. P.G. Student, Department of Computer Engineering, Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Chennai, India
  3. P.G. Student, Department of Computer Engineering, Adhiparasakthi Engineering College, Chennai, India
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As the day moves vehicle population increases daily, The VANET [Vehicular Ad-hoc network] has come up with lot of ideas, Mostly VANET is been used for communication between Vehicles. Not only for communication purpose,VANETalso structured for traffic controlling, Navigation, and other application in VANET. In this paper we prevent accident in intersection, by means of the RSU, vehicle 2 vehicle (V2V) communication and VANET. In urban area there will be many intersection of roads without traffic signal, which will help avoiding accident and control traffic. When vehicles move in such area the communication between vehicles is necessary. When communication has been established between vehicles then the vehicle user can able to know about the arrival of other vehicle at the same time to intersection, so the pilot will be alert of the vehicles arrival.


VANET, Accident Prevention, RSU, Intersection, OBU


The number of deaths and injuries from trafficaccidents has been rapidly increasing. Most of those accidents occur at intersections, because the pilot can’t see what’s come in the other road which is colliding in his moving road. He can only be alerted through a signal by the other vehicle coming through the other road. In an intersection there are 32ways to get collision which has been given below in fig: 1.1, a vehicle which meets the intersection can move to any direction of the lanes at the same time other vehicles in other lanes can also move in any direction, so that accident could occur. This accident is been controlled by using the placing signals in the intersection. But in urban area there vehicles will be in less in numbers so that there will be no need for vehicle for all the time. Due to this reason the urban areas will have no signals in the intersections, but accidents may occur at any time, so that by using the VANET technology, RSU, OBU we introduce a proposed scheme to prevent the accident in rural and urban areas. When vehicles meet intersection then they need to be guided by signal or some source of unit to have a safety riding and prevent them from accidents. In this paper the source is the VANET communication, by using the communication between vehicles, the alert id given to the other vehicles about the arrival so that the pilot of other vehicle will get alert. This scheme not only works in the intersection, also in any road crossing in any format such as ring road, three road colliding at a single place.


VANET is being an emerging technology for safe driving, in paper [1] by using image processing technique the author has given Intelligent Traffic Management System [ITS], so that the vehicles waiting time in the intersection can be reduced. The image processing technique is based on the Canny’s Edge detection [1] method which is been considered as the best edge detection technique in the image processing. By using the method the video frames are been taken and processed to find the number of objects in the frame, like the same way number of vehicle in each lanes will be found and lane with high number of objects will be allocated with more time through signal.
The author of paper [2] estimated the accident detection through telephoto images, this is done through taking images in intersection for a particular period of time and calculating the vehicle positions, and providing information to the vehicle about the other vehicle approach so the vehicle will be alerted. In paper [3] Traffic monitoring and Accident detection at intersection are been calculated by using the VANET technology using parameters the approach of vehicles direction will be identified and vehicles path will be found and monitored by using the information the data will be calculated about the accident and will be sent to the particular vehicles about the accident possibility. In [4] an intelligent concept has been brought out by the author, using the speed of vehicles rolling in the roadways the time will be calculated about the traffic density in a particular area. Here average vehicle speed will be calculated and information will be sent to the server for further process.
The above given fig 2.1 is the STFE Navigation system proposed in [4], here the vehicle which enters a range of an RSU will be provided with an certificate. The time calculation will begin and then the till the vehicles releases the certificate the certificate will be hold by the vehicle. When the certificate has been released the time ticking stops and time for a particular vehicle to cross a particular area/km will be calculated and average speed of vehicle in a roadway will be calculated. In [7] the occurrence of accident has been predicted by using the camera sensing in the intersection and alerting about the vehicle approach to the other vehicles, so that accident can be prevented.


We have passed away from abstract which give the overview and also say about the main concept of the paper. In section I, served with a brief and clear introduction about the Accident occurrence and ways of accident occurrence. In session II, Literature survey gone through has been given as related work. In session IV, system which is in present, is given as Accident Occurrence in Intersection, says about the collision caused in the intersection. Session V is allocated with the problem definition, named as Accident Prevention which is about the problem faced in existing system, and solution for those problems. In session VI the conclusion and future work has been discussed, and finally finished with the reference.
Due to accidents people may lose their life or may get injured, so to avoid accidents and safe the life of people many arrangement has been done in VANET technology. Mostly accidents occurs in the intersection so that signals are been kept to make a safe riding. The signals will not be working for all time at night mostly signals will be made yellow indicating the pilot to slow their speed. Even though accidents occurs due to the unknown vehicle appearance at the time of crossing road.
Here below is shown fig: 4.1 Accident occurrence in intersection denotes the accident occurrence scenario which shows the damage to human life and properties. In this paper preventing these type of accidents are been provided by using the VANET technology by making the distance calculation between vehicles to intersection.


The main reason for accident in the intersection is not knowing about the vehicle which is upcoming from the other roadway which is colliding and makes the intersection. When we make the vehicles to know about the vehicle which is upcoming we can be able to reduce and prevent accident in the intersection. In accident prevention scheme, VANET communciation is been used. Each and every vehicle will be consisting of OBU[On Board Unit], by using RSU[Road Side unit] making the vehicles to get connted with infrastructure. When the vehicle got conneted with the infrastructre then a certificate will be provided for the vehicle authorization, after the verification process the vehicle will be connted with the infrastructure and can be able to send and receive information from other vehicles and also from the infrastructure. When a vehicle has a authentication to be connected with the infrastructure then the vehicle will be added to the network, then the particular vehicle wihich has the authentication will be able to transfer and get information so that the vehcile will be conneted with other vehicle. Using this advantage in the VANET network the accident prevention process will be successfully done.
In the above fig:51: Accident prevntion we can able to veiw the range of the RSU[Road Side Unit], the vehicle which are in the range will be connected to the RSU after the authentication process. The vehicle which are approacing the intersection will be calculating the distance for the destination. The vehicle will be knowing about the approaching of the destination by the help of the navigation system whichi is be implemented in [4]. The distance of the particular vehicle to the intersection wil be found and will be transmitted to the RSU infrastructure. At the same time the RSU will be able to the information about the vehciles wihich are approaching the intersection so that, the RSU can able to calculated which vehicle is near to the intersection. After finding wihich vehicle is near, the RSU will automatically transmit the message to all vehicle about their position and other vehicle position to vehicles. So that the pilot will be able to know what is about to approach, then the pilot will be aware of vehicle approach as he/she knows about the vehicle position. Now the vehcile will comminicate with each other and will posses a saftey way to cross the intersection, by sending and receiving information between the vehicles which are about to cross the intersection.
In the above fig:5.2 working process, considering some vehicles connected to the infrastructure and those vehicles are to approaching the intersection. Now the process of accident prevention process begins by get the location of each vehicles, and calculate which vehicle is near to the intersection. After the calculation the vehicles position towards the intersection the vehicles will be getting the data or information about the other vehicle’s position towards the intersection. Here we have three vehicles approaching to intersection the vehicle with lowest distance towards the intersection will alert other vehicles about its position and distance towards the intersection. So that other vehicle will be alerted about the incoming and get prevented from the collision.


Accidents are being major problem in roadways in both urban and rural areas. Accident leads to loss of human life, Injury to human, traffic congestion, and may also leads to other accidents. So there is a necessity to find a way to reduce or prevent these accidents. In the proposed scheme, the accident can be prevented by giving an alert to the pilot who is upcoming to the intersection. This alert can be provided through the VANET communication using RSU, OBU through V2V communication and V2I communication.

Figures at a glance

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