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The main goal of an endodontic treatment is complete removal of bacteria, their byproducts and pulpal remnants from infected root canals and the complete sealing of disinfected root canals. Intracanal medicaments have been thought an important step in killing the bacteria in root canals; however, in modern endodontics, shaping and cleaning has been emphasized greater importance than intracanal medicaments as a means of disinfecting root canals. Furthermore, biocompatibility and stability are essential properties for intracanal medicaments. The more modern meaning of intracanal dressing is for a blockade against coronal leakage from the gap between filling materials and cavity wall. Calcium hydroxide has been determined as suitable for use as an intracanal medicament as it is stable for long periods, harmless to the body, and bactericidal in a limited area. Single-visit endodontics, where intracanal medicaments are not used, is nowadays indicated and various reports have shown that the clinical outcomes between single-and multiple-visit endodontics are almost similar. There is no reason to counsel against single-visit endodontics: however, if multiple-visit endodontics is chosen, an intracanal medicament is strongly recommended. Therefore, aim of this review is to critically appraise the need for an ideal intracanal medicament and to select cases requiring intracanal medicament instead of using it for each and every case.