Major Nuclear Accidents - A Review
Naga ChandraMouli A*
Department of Biotechnology, GITAM University, Andhra Pradesh, Visakhapatnam, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Naga ChandraMouli A
Department of Biotechnology
GITAM University, and AndhraPradesh
Received date: 03-02-2017; Accepted date: 21-06-2017; Published date: 28-06-2017
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In Nuclear power plant (NPP) heat source is a nuclear reactor which deliveries enormous scale electrical power at inexpensive amount as a improper load to electrical grids historically even though the nuclear business has good safety record we can speak a bunch about nuclear accidents like Chernobyl accident. This article reviews the reactor safety technology and how Modern nuclear reactors are disposed to accidents, shortages of high quality uranium ore may be imminent and the thermoelectric fuel cycle of nuclear plants consumes and degrades vast quantities of water. Safety of NPP has taken methods to discourse new safety challenges raised from the recent accident. Though, safety has been major alarm due to potential release of radioactive material from an accident.
Nuclear safety, Radioactive material, Nuclear accidents
It is about the 50-year history of civil nuclear power generation more than 14,500 reactor-years of civil operation, only three major accidents like Three Mile Island accident, Chalk River Nuclear Accident and Mayak nuclear accident. In NPP the radioactivity is primarily contains nuclear fuel elements which are in the form of rods. Coolant water is used to remove heat produced from fuel rods [1-11]. When the reactor is shutdown there is still heat generated from the core which persevere for a very long period. Hence long term cooling is required even after the reactor is not operating The reactor safety system objectives are to shut down the reactor (achieved through insertion of control rods), preserve it in a shutdown condition, and prevent the release of radioactive material during events and accidents such as loss of coolant accident. The undeveloped design philosophy followed world-over for assuring nuclear power plant safety is called defence-in-depth which has safety systems complementing. Key features of this approach which can be summed up as Prevention, Checking and Action, High-quality design and construction in which the reactor operates with a high degree of dependability [11-17]. The inhibition of accidents is through intrinsic features and pressures on quality control, redundancy, testing, and fail-safe design. Developing of equipment’s which prevents operational disturbances or human failures and errors evolving into problems, Wide-ranging nursing and regular testing to detect damage to the fuel equipment or operator failures, Redundant and diverse systems to control and prevent important radioactive releases, Delivery to confine the effects of severe fuel damage to the plant itself.
At present they are 31 countries which operate NPP most of them are from North America Asia China and Japan. Major NPP are shown in USA, totally they are 479 Nuclear operated reactors which are running in the world which generates 2,798 TWh of electricity in that Iran have the least count or operated reactors and Australia as the major portion in the reserves of Uranium [17-27].
Major accidents like Chernobyl accident which took place in Ukraine. Which is located 125 km north of Kiev on 28th April 1986 occurred because of flawed reactor design and serious faults made by plant operators which destroyed Chernobyl 4 reactor, killing 30 operators. On 26th April they attempted the test by the time that the operator moved to shut down the reactor, the reactor was in an extremely unstable condition this leads to disaster [27-57]. Chalk River Nuclear Accident called CRL located in Canada started in 1944 which was experienced with accidents twice in 1952 and 1958 in first incidence which resulted to damage of core there was a power excursion and partial loss of coolant in the NRX reactor. The control-rods could not be let down into the core, because of mechanical problems and human errors [57-77]. Three rods did not spread their endpoint, and were taken out again by accident and in 1958 some fuel rods were hot under the collar due to robotic crane, one of the rods with metallic uranium was towed out of the reactor vessel. When the arm of the crane moved away from the vessel, the uranium caught fire and the broken rod which leads to accident. In Mayak nuclear accident which is in Russia is the maximum points of the planet with radioactive pollution they have occurred numerous radioactive leaks which caused troubled of the most polluted parts of the world Cautious spill of radioactive materials in the river Tech[77-92]. Windstorm that scattered radioactive materials coming from sediments of Lake Karachay in 1967, Ozersk people were not well-versed, so they constant to use water for domestic use which caused serious health problems [93-110].
In order to create consciousness among the people, group of people unite to form a society or an organization like Biomaterials Aim of these societies is to counsel and create the awareness in the day to day life [92-100]. Major societies like aims at fetching together the professors, educators , researchers, clinicians, American Association Of Pharmaceutical Association provide an international forum for the dissemination of original research results, new ideas and practical development experiences which concentrate on both theory Bioenergy consult discussing contemporary Biofuels and Bioenergy Expo research. We invite you to contribute and help to shape the Biofuels, Biogas, Biomass, Bio refineries, Bioenergy
Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant Safety was well described in the article which was published by Journal of Nuclear Energy Science & Power Generation Technology. and journal like Journal of Material Sciences & Engineering discusses performance of materials in order to synthesize new materials, develop improved processes for making materials to have a wide knowledge on topic which are related to the material sciences. Journal of Powder Metallurgy & Mining says about physical and structural properties of metals
2nd International Conference on Smart Materials & Structures describes materials that have one or more properties that can be meaningfully changed in a controlled fashion by outside stimuli, such as stress, temperature, moisture, pH, electric or magnetic fields. which was held in Pennsylvania, USA 5th World Congress on Materials Science & Engineering calls about designing, choosing, and using three vital classes of materials-metallic materials, ceramics, and polymers which was held in Spain2016. All the talks which have good impact how the materials work and react to their neighbour metals.
Abbas Teimouri speaker talks about Silk fibroin which is a kind of natural polymers with a great potential in biomedical application due to its good biocompatibility, biodegradability, high tensile strength. Has completed phd from Isfahan University of Technology, Isfahan, Iran. Alexander Eberle from Germany Ludwig Maximilian University of Munich focused on Organic Solid-Solid Wetting Deposition (OSWD) that allows the formation of monolayers made of insoluble organic semiconductors such as Pentacene, PTCDA or Quinacridone [110-120]. These fallouts enable a low-cost large-scale production of semiconductor-monolayers with well-defined properties.
Major accident has delivered exclusive lessons and motivation to improve safety of NPP. Each accident has shown boundaries or faults in technology, regulation, and human factors. Reassessment of safety culture has taken place subsequent each accident. However, the improvements implemented seem limited. The Chernobyl accident has added new dimension to the old debateon nuclear energy role. The direct consequence of is more stringent safety requirements and regulatory overhaul of existing plants. After the Chalk River accident severe accident managementhas received much more focus than previously and now is considered not only in NPP design but also in operation guidelines and peer nuclear energy is a part of energy portfolios and it will remain so for at least another 50 years or so until renewable is produced economically in large scale. New technologies should be developed to save the mankind from radiations and make the nuclear accidents a less count development have to be made in the designing of reactors which have high use globally.
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