Marine Environmental Biome and Effect of Ocean Acidification
Kavya M*, Pravallika K, Indu S, Karuna P, Chandana E
Research Associate, SR Research and Development, Osmania University, Hyderabad, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Kavya M
Research Associate, SR Research and Development
Osmania University, Hyderabad, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: 15/07/2016; Revised date: 25/07/2016; Accepted date: 30/07/2016
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Zoological Sciences
Marine Biology is a scientific study of organisms in marine water bodies; it includes both flora and fauna. Marine flora includes: Carnivores and herbivores Carnivores: Great White Shark, Tiger Shark, large fish. Herbivores: Green Sea Turtles, Manatees etc. The study of Marine Conversation and Marine life is fascinated and interesting with new research works.
Flora, Fauna, Marine organisms, Ocean, Acidification, Biome.
Marine Organisms sets behavior and interactions with environment, Marine ecosystem supports great diversity of life flourishes in ocean environment. Marine situations give an extensive variety of marine living spaces from which novel wellsprings of normal items can be inferred. The more prominent the marine biodiversity analyzed, the more noteworthy the open door for revelations that can be changed into significant biotechnologies. There are more than 4000 distinct types of large scale life forms recorded along the Norwegian coast. In Svalbard waters (incl. Bear Island) and Jan Mayen territory roughly 2000 species have been enlisted by Gulliksen and partners. Large portions of the same species are found in both the said regions, showing a low level of endemism in the cold full scale creature fauna. A creature that possess oceans and seas. There are around 160,000 species, including roughly 10,000 Protozoa around 5,000 Porifera, around 9,000 Coelenterata, more than 7,000 Polychaeta and different worms, more than 4,000 Brachiopoda and Bryozoa, more than 80,000 Mollusca, more than 20,000 Crustacea, 6,000 Echinodermata, around 1,000 Tunicata, around 16,000 fishes, and around 150 types of warm blooded creatures and reptiles. Of the 60 classes of surviving nonparasitic creatures, agents of just three classes—Onychophora, Myriapoda, and Amphibia-are not found in the oceans.
The starting points of all creature phyla can be followed back to the ocean. Some marine creatures hence moved to life in crisp water and on dry area, offering ascend to freshwater and physical fauna. A few vertebrates that came back to the marine environment have held their binds to land, leaving the ocean for generation (pinnipeds and ocean turtles). A few winged creatures, for example, penguins and gooney birds, are forever bound to the sea. The most different marine fauna is that of tropical shallows, especially close coral reefs, which serve as natural surroundings for various mollusks, crabs, echinoderms, and fishes. As profundity expands, marine fauna becomes sparser. Just a couple of dozen invertebrate species have adjusted to life at greatest profundities (more than 9–10 km). The marine fauna of shallow seaside locales of calm and chilly waters are described by the best biomass.
As indicated by living space and lifestyle, marine creatures are delegated being either pelagic (tiny fish and nekton) or benthic (benthos). Trademark delegates of marine zoo-tiny fish are a few foraminifers, a few radiolarians, some tintinnids, siphonophores, medusae, ctenophores, copepods, euphausids, pteropods, salpids, and the hatchlings of numerous pelagic and benthic creatures. The important mass of nekton is made out of fishes and cephalopod mollusks; cetaceans are less various. Extraordinary people group of creatures that swim on the surface of the ocean, or pleustons, are circulated basically in the tropics; such surface creatures incorporate the siphonophore Velella, goose barnacles, and life forms that live among gliding green growth (particularly Sargassum). In polar oceans a one of a kind group, or cryopelagic biocenosis, creates close to the undersurface of marine ice; this group incorporates diatomaceous green growth, amphipods, and fish sear.
Flora and Fauna has it life all over under ocean, deep sea [1-5], or on earth with small algae suspension like phytoplankton. Depending on the water sare ocean is divided into
Intertidal zone experiences longshore currents, breaking waves at 5 to 10 meters blow low tide level depending on force of waves, It includes flora of species Phyllo spadix spp., Phylum Chlorophyta, Phylum Phaeophyta (brown algae), Phylum Rhodophyta (red algae) [6-20]. Sea grasses are abundant in this layer [21-30]. Animals that live in the intertidal zone have a wide variety of predators that eat them. When littoral organisms are preyed upon by sea animals. When the tide is out, they are preyed by land animals, like foxes and people. Birds (like gulls) and marine mammals (like walruses) also prey on intertidal organisms extensively.
Open Ocean Epipelagic is place where organisms free to live and swim this is a place for their food production, the organisms live in this zone can come in contact with sea shore. Open Ocean Mesopelagic is 1000mts deep in ocean numerous vertebrates live in this zone, open ocean bathypelagic is more dark and deepest of 4000mts where most of organism provide light themselves, some species do not have ability to see anything next to bathypelagic we have abyssopelagic where life cannot be pertained, Hadopelagic is last deepest where no life can be survived [31-40].
Where the shallow ocean floor is sandy or muddy, there may be crabs darting quickly across the sediment and slow-moving sea stars and snails. Crabs wearing snail shells are known as hermit crabs. They can also be found on the sand [41-50]. Some fish and sharks prefer to live near the bottom swimming just above the sand. Other animals live buried in the sand or mud, such as clams, worms, and sea urchins with short spines. Sea grass, which looks like a lawn of tall grass, can also grow in sand and mud. The area of shallow seas accounts for 7.5% of the oceans, 18% of the land above the sea level, and 3% of the Earth's surface. Benthic zone is region of ocean sediments were we can find benthos.
Maine Biome covers three fourth of the earth with different organism living under it, climate does not mostly effect the marine biome as it is cool deeper in the poles. The average ocean biome temperature is 39 degrees it changes as it goes deeper in to the ocean, salty water in tropical regions is due to evaporation of water living salt make water more salty in tropics, and midnight zone in ocean don’t receive sunlight and most of the volcanoes occurs due to disturbances under water [51-70].
Many organisms that form the basis for the marine food chain are going to be affected by ocean acidification. Diminish in PH of sea is because of outflow of CO2, Acid environment influences the creature in sea if PH of the sea constantly diminishes, The seas take up CO2 from the climate and are in charge of retaining around 33% of the CO2 discharged by fossil fuel copying, deforestation, and bond generation since the modern transformation. Air fluxes results in sea fermentation While this is useful as far as constraining the ascent in climatic CO2 concentrations and henceforth nursery warming because of this CO2, Global warming, Deforestation influences more sea fermentation there are immediate outcomes for sea science. Sea fermentation depicts the bringing down of seawater pH and carbonate immersion that outcome from expanding environmental CO2 fixations. There are additionally backhanded and conceivably antagonistic natural and environmental outcomes of the compound changes occurring in the sea now and as anticipated into what's to come. An unnatural weather change because of expanded air CO2 fixation causes sea warming, which results in a lessening in the profundity of the upper blending layer. Such stratification increments incorporated exposures of phytoplankton cells inside the UML to sun powered UVR and obvious radiation and declines the upward transport of supplements from more profound water layers, affecting phytoplankton photophysiology. Changes of both sun powered PAR and UVR inside the UML influence phytoplankton photosynthetic movement and carbon obsession. Blending profundities and/or blending rates in the upper seas additionally change because of expanded stratification and/or wind speed because of worldwide environmental change [71-73].
Diminish in PH of sea is because of outflow of CO2, Acid environment influences the living being in sea if PH of the sea constantly diminishes, The seas take up CO2 from the climate and are in charge of retaining around 33% of the CO2 discharged by fossil fuel copying, deforestation, and concrete generation since the modern transformation. Barometrical fluxes results in sea fermentation While this is useful as far as restricting the ascent in climatic CO2 concentrations and henceforth nursery warming because of this CO2, Global warming, Deforestation influences more sea fermentation there are immediate outcomes for sea science. Sea fermentation depicts the bringing down of seawater pH and carbonate immersion that outcome from expanding environmental CO2 focuses [74-76]. There are likewise aberrant and possibly unfavorable organic and environmental results of the synthetic changes occurring in the sea now and as anticipated into what's to come.
The sea's ingestion of CO2 holds air change in line. For a considerable length of time, atmosphere researchers portrayed the uptake as a gift for society, and sea scientists trusted that calcium carbonate residue on the ocean bottom would break down in adequate amounts to counterbalance a drop in pH. Yet, inquire about has demonstrated that the rate at which residue disintegrate can't in any way, shape or form keep pace with the far speedier rate of fermentation. Society can keep on depending on the sea for help, however the expense is a rising risk to all marine life [77-80].
We would most likely see the impacts of sea fermentation first in creature assembles that have finely tuned ecological reaches, especially those officially "living on the edge, for example, coral reefs, which have as of now experienced broad fading and demise warming sea temperatures [81-88]. How well marine life can adjust to fast fermentation remains an open inquiry; however there is genuine purpose behind concern. Sea life has weathered expansive natural irritations amid the world's history, scarcely; around 250 million years back enormous volcanism is thought to have brought on sea fermentation and different variables that left 90 percent of marine species dead. Environmental change and the related physical and concoction changes in the sea diminish oxygen in the water in some area. In the interim, roughly 33% of the carbon dioxide that people produce by smoldering fossil powers is being consumed by the sea, step by step creating the seas to end up more acidic and influencing natural procedures of different marine living beings [95-100].
Photosynthesis is absent under deep seas as cold water dissolves more oxygen than warm water here organisms depends on decaying food particles, still research prolongs how the living creatures live deep under ocean with minimal oxygen stage. Unless and until human emission of CO2 decreases we cannot stop ocean acidification we see most endanger species effecting ocean acidification, Although the changes in seawater chemistry that result from the oceanic uptake of anthropogenic CO2 are well characterized over most of the ocean, the biological impacts of ocean acidification on marine fauna are only beginning to be understood saving ecosystem is important to protect flora and fauna.
- Durogbitan AA. Morphology of the Niger Delta:Local Facies Belts Orientation versus Depobelts and Growth Fault Orientations. 2016;6:3.
- Mahmoud MK et al. Exploring Sheraoh Island at South-Eastern Qatar:First Distributional Records of Some Inland and Offshore Biota with Annotated Checklist. JMSRD. 2016;6:3.
- Chien Tu SMH and Shu-Ting Kuo. Establishment and Characterization of a Novel Kidney-cell Line from Orange-spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides, and its Susceptibility to Grouper Iridovirus. JMSRD. 2016;6:3.
- Sue Min Huang and Chien Tu. Establishment and Characterization of a Novel Kidney-cell Line from Orange-spotted Grouper, Epinephelus coioides, and its Susceptibility to Grouper Iridovirus JMSRD. 2016;6:3.
- Durogbitan AA. A Re-evaluation of the Depositional Environments and Sedimentary Facies of Middle Miocene Paralic Deposits (Agbada Formation), Ewan and Oloye Fields, Northwestern Niger Delta. JMSRD 2016;6:3.
- El-Araby DA and Gamal El-Didamony. The new Approach to Use Phage Therapy against Aeromonas hydrophila Induced Motile Aeromonas Septicemia in Nile Tilapia. JMSRD. 2016;6:3.
- Gaspar B. Climatic Consequences of Long-term Global Salination of Ocean, JMSRD. 2016;6:3.
- Durogbitan AA. Seismic and Sequence Stratigraphic Analysis of Ewan and Oloye Fields (Middle Miocene), Northwestern Niger Delta:Implications for Deltaic Depositional Sequences. JMSRD 2016;6:3.
- Lorelei C and Parsons ECM. Simple Test Identifies Bones of Endangered Marine Mammals Sold as “Mermaid Ivory” or Steller’s Sea Cow (Hydrodamalis gigas).JMSRD 2016;6:3.
- Tainá Ba and Milena R. Comb Grouper (Mycteroperca acutirostris) Information from Catches at Copacabana, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. JMSRD. 20166:3.
- Alessandra G and Elisabetta T. Adverse Effect of Ocean Acidification on Marine Organisms. JMSRD 2016;6:2.
- Sabapathi A and Viswanathan MS. Variation in Shell Morphology and Adult Specimen Weight in Three Varieties of a Commercially Important Gastropod Turbinella Pyrum (Linnaeus, 1767) From Southeast Coast of India. JMSRD 2016;6:2.
- Marinella SL and Juliana FS. Antagonistic Interactions among Bacteria Isolated from either the Same or from Different Sponges Native to the Brazilian Coast. JMSRD 2016;6:2.
- Youssouf MO and Laurent M. Statistical Analysis of Sea Surface Temperature and Chlorophyll-a Concentration Patterns in the Gulf of Tadjourah (Djibouti). JMSRD. 2016;6:2.
- Madenjian CP and Jensen OP. Mercury Accumulation and the Mercury-PCB-Sex Interaction in Summer Flounder. JMSRD. 2016;6:2.
- Muhammad ZL and Pratiwi DW. Bioacoustic Spectral Whistle Sound and Behaviour of Male Dolphin Bottle Nose (Tursiops aduncus) at Safari Park Indonesia, Cisarua Bogor. JMSRD 2016;6:2.
- Mohamed G Nasser. Chewing Lice:Tiny Insects in Raging Seas. JMSRD. 2016;6:1.
- Gallo A and Tosti. The Ascidian Ciona Intestinalis as Model Organism for Ecotoxicological Bioassays. JMSRD. 2016;6:2.
- Tahar Gharred and Azza N. Assessment of Oxidative Stress and Histopathological Biomarkers in the Parablennius Incognitus Fish as Potential Contamination Indicators of the Bay of Sousse (Tunisia). JMSRD. 2016;5:3.
- Santos ADO and Nascimento MTL. (2015) Marine Pollution:The Problematic of Microplastics. JMSRD. 2016;5:3.
- Zamani NP and Gazali M. The Study of Tyrosinase and Antioxidant Activity of Xylocarpus Granatum Koenig Seed Kernel Extract toward Evidence Based Indigenous Knowledge from Togean Archipelago, Indonesia. JMSRD. 2015;5:3.
- Long A andDang A. The Summer Distribution of Dissolved Inorganic Iodine along 18’N in the South China Sea. JMSRD. 2015;5:3.
- Stamatopoulos C and Abdallah M. Standardization of Fishing Effort in Qatar Fisheries:Methodology and Case Studies. JMSRD. 2015;5:3.
- Anand P and Kamla PM. Activation of Complement System during Ship Voyage and Winter-over Expedition in Antarctica. JMSRDD. 2015;5:3
- Shivakumara LV and Pramod V. Diversity of Phytoplanktons in Rice Fields of Davangere Taluk, Karnataka. JMSRD. 2015;5:3.
- Annarita P and Concetta G. APoly-γ-Glutamic Acid from Bacillus Horneckiae Strain APA of Shallow Marine Vent Origin with Antiviral and Immunomodulatory Effects against Herpes Simplex Virus Type-2. JMSRD. 2015;5:3.
- Kwaansa EE and Agyemang D. Mercury in Different Tissues of Grey Herons (Ardea cinerea) from the Volta Lake, Ghana. JMSRD. 2016;6:1.
- Prince RC, Kelley BA, Butler JD. Three Widely-Available Dispersants Substantially Increase the Biodegradation of otherwise Undispersed Oil. JMSRD. 2016;6:1.
- Aliyu HD and Jonathan P. Innovative Policy Options for Shared Marine Fishery Resource Management:Lessons from the Nigeria-sao Tome & Principe Joint Development Zone. JMSRD. 2016;6:1.
- Craig ST and Sophia CG. Ribosomal Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) DNA Variation in Millepora. JMSRD. 2016;6:1.
- Asish M and Deepta C. Feeding Ecology and Prey Preference of Grey Mullet, Mugil cephalus (Linnaeus, 1758) in Extensive Brackish Water Farming System. JMSRD. 2016;6:1.
- George S and Stephen SB.Amnesic Shellfish Poisoning:Emergency Medical Management. JMSRD. 2016;6:1.
- Saputra F and Chia-Hung Yen. Toxicity Effects of the Environmental Hormone 4-Tert-Octylphenol in Zebrafish (Danio Rerio). JMSRD. 2016;6:1.
- Lina MR and John S. A Submersible Holographic Microscope for 4-D In-Situ Studies of Micro-Organisms in the Ocean with Intensity and Quantitative Phase Imaging. JMSRD. 2016; 6:1.
- Abhijit Mitra. Future of Mangroves. JMSRD 2015;5:2.
- Nascimento MTL and Santos ADO. Endocrine Disruptors in Estuarine Environments:We Still Need a Simple and Cost-Effective Framework for Environmental Monitoring. JMSRD. 2015;5:2.
- Ensibi C and Olivier P. Effects of Cadmium Exposure on Reproduction and Survival of the Planktonic Copepod Centropages ponticus. JMSRD. 2015;5:2.
- Seinen C and Takashi Y. Universal Primers for Exon-Priming Intron-Crossing (EPIC) PCR on Ribosomal Protein Genes in Marine Animals. JMSRD. 2015;5:2.
- Awaleh Mom and Hoch FB. Impact of Human Activity on Marine and Coastal Environment in the Gulf of Tadjourah. JMSRD. 2015;5:2.
- Olusola JO and Festus AA. Assessment of Heavy Metals in Some Marine Fish Species Relevant to their Concentration in Water and Sediment from Coastal Waters of Ondo State, Nigeria. JMSRD. 2015;5:2.
- Elegbede Io and Lawal A. Size and Growth of Cardiosoma armatum and Cardiosoma guanhumi as Ecological Parameters for Mangrove Ecosystem. JMSRD. 2016;5:2.
- Abhijit M.Oceanography:A Journey in Search of Root. JMSRD. 2015;5:1.
- Michael J. How Effective are Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) for Coral Reefs? JMSRD. 2015;5:1.
- Alcántara J and Albarracín S. The Role of the Geological Inheritance in the Present Littoral? Shelf Sedimentary Interactions. JMSRD. 2015;5:1.
- Hussein K and Oksana B. Diversity Investigation of the Seaweeds Growing on the Lebanese Coast. JMSRD. 2015;5:1.
- Henry MM. Acoustic Characterization of Fish and Seabed Using Underwater Acoustic Technology in Seribu Island Indonesia. JMSRD. 2016;5:1.
- Abdolah RS, Zohreh M, Mehdi H. Distribution and Seasonal Variation of Heavy Metal in Surface Sediments from Arvand River, Persian Gulf. JMSRD. 2014;4:3.
- Kutschera U. From Aquatic Biology to Weismannism:Science versus Ideology. JMSRD 2014;4:3.
- Adam T and Ali I. Separate and Joint Effects of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH)and Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCB) on Aromatase CYP19A Transcription Level in Atlantic Tomcod (Microgradus tomcod). JMSRD. 2014;4:3.
- Ravinesh R and Roveena VC. Effects of Processing Methods on the Value of Beche-de-mer from the Fiji Islands. JMSRD 2014;4:3.
- Kefi AS and Chungu NP, et al. Is Fortification of Methionine Necessary in Soya Bean (Glycine Max) Based Feeds for Oreochromis andersonii (Castelnau, 1861) Raised in Semi-Concrete Ponds? JMSRD. 2014;4:3.
- Siva Kumar Korada and Nagendra Sastri Yarla. Probiotics:A Promoter for Aqua Farming. 2014;4:2.
- Yaghoob Parsa and Seyed S. Mercury Accumulation in Food Chain of Fish, Crab and Sea Bird from Arvand River JMSRD. 2014;4:2.
- Alpina Begossi. Reef Fishes:Urgent needs for Knowledge and Management in Tropical Waters. JMSRD.2014;4:2.
- Mehdi Hosseini and Jamileh Pazooki, Mohsen SafaeiSize at Maturity. Sex Ratio and Variant Morphometrics of Blue Swimming Crab Portunus segnis (Forskal, 1775) from Boushehr Coast (Persian Gulf) J Marine Res Dev. 2014;4:2.
- Priscila FM. Speaking of Paradigms:The Open Access Model and Developing Countries. J Marine Res Dev. 2014;4:2.
- Charn K. Monitoring Coastal Erosion by Using Wave Spectrum in the Case of Constructions of Small Islands Offshore Songkhla Coas. J Marine Res Dev. 2014;4:2.
- Angel A. Preliminary Study of the Identification of Proteins in Tissue Fluids of the Sea Mussel Isognomon alatus. J Marine Res Dev. 2014;4:2.
- Rajrupa G and Kakoli B. Inter-relationship between Physico-chemical Variables and Litter Production in Mangroves of Indian Sundarbans. J Marine Res Dev. 2014;S11:001.
- Kakoli B. Decadal Change in the Surface Water Salinity Profile of Indian Sundarbans:A Potential Indicator of Climate Change. J Marine Res Devp. 2014;S11:002.
- Jana HK. Signal of Climate Change through Decadal Variation of Aquatic pH in Indian Sundarbans. J Marine Res Devp. 2014;S11:003.
- Rahul B et al. Study of the Microbial Health in and Around the Lower Stretch of Hooghly Estuary. J Marine Res Devp. 2014;S11:004.
- Prasad K et al. Wind-wave Climate Projections for the Indian Ocean from Satellite Observations. J Marine Res Devp. 2014;S11:005.
- Hsueh-Wei Chang. Drug Discovery and Bioinformatics of Marine Natural Products. J Marine Res Devp 2014;4:1.
- HB J et al. Pharmaceutically Active Compounds (PhACs):A Threat for Aquatic Environment? J Marine Res Devp. 2014;4:1.
- Nagendra S and Ganapaty S. Bioactive Flavonoids as ABC Transporters Inhibitors for Reversion of Multidrug Resistance in Cancer. J Marine Res Devp. 2014;4:1.
- Birgit AG. The Occupational Health Perspective in the Context of Marine Science.J Marine Res Dev 2014;4:1.
- Natividade V andAna B. Artisanal Salina? Unique Wetland Habitats Worth Preserving. J Marine Res Devp. 2014; 4:1.
- Yuri Y.Some Data on the Composition and Structure of Coral Communities in the Littoral and Sublittoral in the Province of Khanh Hoa, Vietnam. J Marine Res Devp 2014;4:1.
- Yajaira G et al. Optimization of Fertilization Success in the Bivalve Mollusk Tivela mactroides under Laboratory Conditions. J Marine Res Devp. 2014;4:1.
- E Isa O and Aderonke O. Comparative study of Condition factor, Stomach Analysis and Some Aspects of Reproductive Biology of Two Land Crabs:Cardiosoma armatum (Herklots, 1851) and Cardiosoma guanhumi (Latreille, 1825) from a Mangrove Swamp Ecosystem, Lagos? Nigeria. J Marine Res Devp. 2014;4:1.
- Weihong Z, et al. (2014) Tracing the Variability of Dissolved Organic Matter Fluorescence in the East China Sea in the Red Tide Season with use of Excitation-emission Matrix Spectroscopy and Parallel Factor Analysis. J Marine Res Devp. 2014;4:1.
- Mehdi H et al. The Levels of Toxic Metals in Blue Crab Portunus segnis from Persian Gulf. J Marine Res Devp. 2014;4:1.
- Doust HE and Omatsola. Niger Delta:American Association of Petroleum Geologists Memoir.1989;48:210-238.
- Reijers TJA et al. The Niger delta basin in RC Selley, African basins-sedimentary basins of the world, Amsterdam, Elsevier Science. 1997;pp:151-172.
- Doust HE and Omatsola. Niger delta in Edwards JD and Santogrossi PA divergent/passive margin basin AAPG.1990;48:201-238.
- Weber KJ and Daukoru EM. Petroleum Geology of the Niger Delta. Proc. Ninth World Petrol. Congress. 1975;2:209-221.
- Evamy BD et al. Hydrocarbon habitat of tertiary Niger delta. AAPG Bull 1978;62:1-39.
- Durogbitan AA. Seismic, sequence stratigraphic and structural analysis of Ewan and Oloye fields, Northwestern Niger Delta. Earth Science Department, University of Manchester.2010;pp:337.
- Durogbitan AA et al. Seismic straigraphy and development of deep fluvial incisions in the middle miocene deposits, Ewan and Oloye Fields, Northwestern Niger Delta. Proceeding of NAPE Annual Convention and Exhibition 2008.
- Galloway WE. Process framework for describing the morphologic and stratigraphic evolution of deltaic depositional systems. In Broussard ML, Deltas, models for exploration:Houston, TX, Houston Geological Society. 1975;87-98.
- Bhattacharya JP and Walker GR. In:Walker GR and James PN. Facies models:response to sea level change. Geological Assoc of Canada. 1992;157-177.
- Walker RG. Facies models and modern stratigraphic concepts. In Walker RG and James NP, Facies Models:Response to seal level changes. Geological Assoc of Canada. 1992;1-14.
- Allen JRL. Late quaternary Niger delta and adjacent areas- sedimentary environments and lithofacies:AAPG Bull.1965;49:547-600.
- Allen JRL. Sediments of the modern Niger delta: a summary and review. In:Morgan JP, Deltaic sedimentation, modern and ancient. SEPM Spec Publ. 1970;15:138-151.
- Fishers WL et al. Delta system in the exploration for oil and gas, a research colloquium, Austin, TX, Texas Bureau of Economic Geology. 1969;p :204.
- Castilla AM et al. The lizards living in Qatar. Eds Al-Hemaidi AAM, Al-Hajari SA, Al-Subai K, Mohtar RH, Pelegri JM, Castella AM. Ministry of Environment, Doha, Qatar. 2014; p:349.
- Abulfatih HA et al. Vegetation of Qatar. Scientific and applied research center SARC, Qatar University, Al-Ahleia Printing Press, Doha, Qatar. 2001; pp: 360.
- Gillespie F. Discovering Qatar. Creative writing and photography. Rimons, France, 2008;148.
- Hofmann M. IUCN-strategies for the conservation of Island biodiversity, in international conference on island evolution, ecology, and conservation, 18-22 July 2016, University of Azores at Angra do Heroismo, Terceira island, Azores, Portugal, 2016.
- AI-Ansi MA and AI- Khayat JA. Preliminary study on coral reef and its associated biota in Qatari waters, Arabian Gulf. Qatar Univ. Sci J.1999;19:294-311.
- Al-Khayat JA. Some Macrobenthic Invertebrates in the Qatari Waters, Arabian Gulf. Qatar Univ. Sci. J. 2005;25:126-136.
- Carpenter KE et al. FAO species identification guide for fishery purposes. The living marine resources of Kuwait, Eastern Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, and the United Arab Emirates. FAO, Rome.1997;293.
- Jones D. A field guide to the seashores of Kuwait and the Arabian Gulf. University of Kuwait, Kuwait. 1986;192.
- Sivasubramaniam K, Ibrahim MA. Common fishes of Qatar Scientific Atlas of Qatar. Doha modern printing press, Doha, Qatar, 1982;p:172.
- Batanouny KH. Ecology and Flora of Qatar. Aldern press Ltd, Oxford, Great Britain. 1981;245.
- Loughland RA and Al-Abdulkader KA. Marine atlas of western Arabian Gulf. Saudi Aramco environmental protection publication, 2nd edition. 2012;p:359.
- Bruckner A et al. Atlas of Saudi Arabian Red Sea Marine Habitats. Khaled bin Sultan Living Oceans Foundation. 2012;p:273.
- RudmanWB. TheChromodorididaeOpisthobranchia:Mollusca of the lndo-estPacific: Chromodoris splendida, C. as groups. Zoological J of the Linnaean Society. 1983a;78:105-173.
- Macdonald IA. Chromodoris annulata, color markings. [Message in] Sea Slug Forum. Australian Museum. 2004.