More Newly Characterized Viruses in Coming Days
Mohammed Mujahid1,2* and Farah Ghani1
1Department of Biochemistry, Aurora Post Graduate College, Chikkadpally, Hyderabad, India
2Department of Animal Science, Hyderabad Central University, Gachibowli, Hyderabad, India
- *Corresponding Author:
- Mohammed Mujahid
Department of Animal Science
Hyderabad Central University, Gachibowli
Hyderabad, Andhra Pradesh, India
E-mail: [email protected]
Received date: 15/08/2016; Revised date: 20/08/2016; Accepted date: 26/08/2016
Visit for more related articles at Research & Reviews: Journal of Zoological Sciences
It has been more than a century since the famous Dutch microbiologist Beijerinck submitted his paper on the cause of tobacco mosaic which leads to discovery of virus and the concept of Virology. There are about 219 virus species that infect humans and more 200 plant viruses and animal virus and This paper marked to understand beginning of a far-reaching change for to understand the pathogenicity of a newly emerge virus and led to eventually in understand the genetic nature of the virus of an every newly emerge viruses. Still there is a question mark for every scientist or newly emerge naïve researcher that we have been failing to understand the genetic nature of virus. It has seen that nearly about 15-20 viruses are emerging now and then. In view of the presumed that obligative parasite they call viruses as the greatest caution must be exerted in attributing to anyone virus a property observed in this consider each virus as a completely distinct entity, un-related to any others.
Transmission, Infectious disease, Zoonosis, Bacterial infections
Although we know much about viruses, it is an instructive and the well interesting matter to consider how this knowledge came about [1-3]. It was only just above 100 years ago at the end of the 19th century that the germ theory of disease was formulated and pathologists were then confident that a microorganism which acts as causative it would be found for each infectious disease that the organism is infected for it may be plants or animals [4-8]. Viruses are microscopic, obligate parasites which may be inter or intra cellular parasites. Viruses are too small to be seen only through microscope and they are not self-replicates in which they have no choice but to replicate with in the host cells that means said to be host depended [4,9-12]. The simple but useful definition goes a long way toward for describing viruses and differentiating them from all other types of organisms. It is not a problem to differentiate virus from such as plants and animals.
Although the history of virology recounted that a more familiar question and receive very less attention to it. How generations of virologist and microbiologist has arrived to an idea that some of them dealt to fell into the category that they are differed from the fundamental studies on virology [8,9,13-15].
In other words, how we categorized the word of “virus” as we now know it? Aristotle proposed that this are objects in the world which can be categorized into what we now call natural kinds, objects that held some sorts of “pure” or “real” relation to each other based on their primary (necessary and sufficient) qualities as opposed to secondary qualities [2,5,16-20].
Viruses were considered as natural objects, but our beliefs make us to understand, and conceptions of them change over time to time on the basis of new information which formulated now and then. In a very real way to understand a virus is what virologists say it is most intelligent creature [4,9,21]. It is a product of the way person who talks about only viruses he said to be virologists that is, the way facts about viruses are organized in their discourse. It can be said that virologists invent the concept of a virus as part of the normal progress of their science.
Some Historical Highlights
The Intense efforts have been devoted for its identity and functional character of its nature of viral structure and its pathogenesis as well its products expressed in any kind of infected cell. In the late eighteenth century virological the term that have been used for many years previously to describing the agents, called the word “virus” which is derived from the Latin word called “Slimy fluid [22-28].
A significant outbreak of several viral epidemics which have involve more than a few research works has been started mid 18th century with the discovery of the tobacco mosaic by Beijerinck found a sap form of bacterial toxins which remains as virulent even after the filtration could be transferred successively to the number of plants. Since then the most important study to work to understand the virulent structure and pathogenesis [15,21,29,30].
The Word Virus
The Twenty first century definition for the virus “Vital Immune System under Set Upon” good definition matches with the viruses because it’s under siege the vital immune of any organism. According during the nineteenth century most of the virus has been synonym as poison and Pasteur’s word for an infectious agent which causes infection. The refinement of the virus concept like a story of technologies and methods more than a story of as many shifts, eureka moments and many discoveries [31-39]. The basic idea that virus’s material basis for transmission of diseases has changed words of definition in the past 50 years; what has changed is our understanding the essential properties and biological capacities of virus [40-45].
The rate of discovery of these sub viral plant pathogens was low over the past 40 years because the classical approaches are technically demanding and time-consuming”-circumstances, which may have discouraged experimentation in efforts to discover animal viroids. There still exist other forces, however, which may have drastically limited the extent of experimentation with sub viral agents by animal- and, above all, by medically- and biochemically-oriented investigators [30,38-41,46-51].
For example, many investigators adhere to an excessive anthropocentric bias, which automatically downgrades the significance of results obtained with plants, in disregard of the fact that many important biological discoveries have first been achieved with plants or plant tissues. Suffice it to mention here Gregor Mendel’s fundamental laws of genetics and the discovery of the first virus, tobacco mosaic virus, as well as determination of its molecular constitution-all of which were first achieved with plants or plant systems [26,36,41,52-59]. It was thus useful for to remind investigators that viroids are, aside from their pathogenic properties, most useful systems to study basic principles of RNA biology.
A remarkable success like a Hollywood movie villain of the immune of system “Infectious Diseases Movie” of the virus act as villainous role killing the T3 and T4 cell leading to under siege of the immune system . In 1917, suddenly mindset of research, shift with a discovery of microbial identifier called Ultra microbes or highly advanced filterable agents at the time which helps in the identifying the filterable virus like bacteriophages in which virus attacks the bacteria themselves considered different from the highly specialized organism such as plants and animals and the way of discovery of bacteriophages and its technology developed and lead a new addition of the virus identity [61-66].
Yes of course is not very surprisingly which led to a rise of enthusiasm in the research work; until about the 1920s, microbes-bacteria in particular-were suggested on the basis for pathologies, including its infection and even pathologies. Most influences scientific advances happened after a decade of World War II was the establishment of NSF in 1950s [49,53,54,59,67-70].
In conclusion, there seem to have been exceedingly few efforts to find viroids in animals-whether or not associated with diseases. Although, at first glance, the low level of experimentation in efforts to discover animal viroids may seem surprising, but is understandable in view of the fact that the very concept of sub viral agents has only recently been accepted by most animal and medical investigators.
Techniques: The Focus of the First Decade
In 1890s, application and usage of filtration to study virus and related protein particle has provided a new way to think about these microbial creatures. The work is widely recounted in the history of virology and may not be elaborated upon except to note in landmark reports. The important studies put forward by Loeffler & Frosch who studied foot mouth disease and Ivanowski and Beijerinck who studied the TMV virus which gives the virus unique distinction from another microbial creature [71-73].
List of technology 1890s (Filtration)  Complement fixation  Tissue culture (1970s)  Monoclonal antibodies  polymerase chain reaction (PCR) 2000s high throughput sequencing .
Early Period: From Dark Research to Second World War
Viruses began to reach the epidemic stages when human behaviour changed during around 12,000 years ago during the Neolithic period, when humans populated in the agricultural communities which are susceptible to viruses and devastating consequences in the agricultural production. Humans became over-reliant on agriculture and farming, diseases such as virus diseases of potatoes and rinderpest of cattle had devastating consequences. Hence measles and small pox firstly identified and free from the list of human disease because due to identification of vaccine by Louis Pasteur and Edward Jenner [60,65,68,73-76].
In 1882, TMV has identified which causes described a condition of tobacco plants, called as "mosaic disease" and in 1896, Hankin report something in the holy river of the Ganges and Yamuna in India had marked antibacterial action against cholera and could pass through a very fine porcelain filter and then followed by In 1915, British bacteriologist Frederic from Brown Institution of London, discovered a small agent that infected and killed bacteria later on which is called as Bacteriophage [44,55,77-79]. But know its consider as Molecular Transporter for the gene therapy tool in the advanced molecular which act a carrier several genes or cell which helps in correction.
In 1918 Pandemic of Flu was one of the unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the two pandemics involving the H1N1 influenza virus. It infected 500 million people across the world including remote areas like Pacific islands and the Arctic, and resulted in the deaths of 50 to 100 million which estimates 3 to 5 percent population of the globe making as one of the deadliest natural disasters disease in human history [80-84].
The Intermediate Period: 1939–1962
But this early research was interrupted between the World War II, in the decade between 1940-1950 nothing major important active study happen to see in the virus research, but late decade of 1950-60, Hershey and Chase made important discovered the replication of DNA of bacteriophage T2 phage and awarded the Nobel Prize in the year 1969 “for their discoveries mechanism of replication and its genetic structure of such viruses" [1,6,9,44,85-88].
Modern Stage: 1964- till now
Even though “viruses are viruses,” each generation of scientists looks in to a new at a fascinating creature on its own way, endowing them with properties, relationships, and capacities that reflect as the time changes. Truly, they are microbes being continually reinvented by their most ardent admirers. Likewise in the year 1980s worlds deadly virus has been discovered called AIDS , 2000s SARS , 2010 HINI virus , 2016 Zika virus  at its epidemic stages spread all countries around the globe.
Several reviews have been written on modern viruses in which they have describe as ‘drivers ‘of the emerging of viruses or other pathogens. They constitute a set of environmental and biological factors, many of which—such as urbanization of land use it seems to be intuitively reasonable but are too broad to relate to mechanistic causes of emergence. The list of new emerging human virus species that are reported from 2005 to 2016 : Human bocavirus (Parvoviridae), parvovirus 4 (Parvoviridae), KI polyomavirus (Polyomaviridae), Melaka virus (Reoviridae), WU polyomavirus (Polyomaviridae), astrovirus MLB1 (Astroviridae), Bundibugyo ebolavirus (Filoviridae), human bocavirus 2 (Parvoviridae), human cosaviruses A-D (Picornaviridae), human cosavirus E1 (Picornaviridae), astrovirus VA1 (Astroviridae), human papilloma virus 116 (Papillomaviridae), klassevirus (Picornaviridae) and Lujo virus (Arenaviridae), Ebola virus and zika virus [38,42,65,68,93-96].
While my survey did not disclose conclusive evidence of an existing animal sub viral agent, the few negative reports listed do not permit drawing the conclusion that such agents are absent in animals. Only much further experimentation could provide definite evidence one way or other [97-99]. Such evidence would be much easier to obtain than was the case during the last 40 years, for example, by use of novel methods which can analyze multiple sample simultaneously. Nearly about 216 human viruses has been identified and more to come in future generation, some say in coming days would be more viruses than the human race counts . A better understanding of the emergence of new human viruses as a biological and ecological process which will allow us to refine our currently very crude notion of pathogens of all kinds
- Hambridge K, et al. Nursing students' knowledge, self-efficacy and skill in measuring radial pulse in the clinical skills simulation environment: a pilot study. International Journal of Clinical Skills 2014;8:4.
- Cassim A, Richard D. Fourth year medical students' experience of learning in a shadowing session. International Journal of Clinical Skills 2014;8:6.
- Cilli A, et al. Detection of Rotavirus G3P. Genotype in Gnotobiotic Rabbit Model. J Virol Antivir Res 2013;2:3.
- Kwofie TB and Miura T. Enhanced fitness of non-pathogenic shiv-nm-3rn over acute pathogenic 89.6p in a dual infection/compitition assay on hsc-f monkey derived cell line. J Virol Antivir Res 2013;2:3.
- Cottrell M, et al. Implications for hepatitis c treatment and disease progression in an hiv/hcv co-infected population. J Virol Antivir Res 2013;2:3.
- Curcio F and Baldassarre C. Prevalence of hepatitis virus and hbv/hcv interactions in opiate addict subjects. J Virol Antivir Res 2013;2:4.
- Amon W and Farrell PJ. Reactivation of EpsteinâBarr virus from latency. Reviews in Medical Virology 2013;15:149-156.
- Sripriya M, et al. Herpes simplex virus type -2 infection and associated risk factors among weaverâs community in tamil nadu state, india. J Virol Antivir Res 2013;2:4.
- Efstathiou S and Preston CM. Towards an understanding of the molecular basis of herpes simplex virus latency. Virus Research 2013;111:108-119.
- Zenobii MF, et al. âTo Treat or Not to Treat?â: A case of severe acute hepatitis-b treated with entecavir compared to a case of milder, untreated disease. J Virol Antivir Res 2013;2:4.
- Origoni M, et al. Prevention of cervical cancer in women: human papillomavirus dna testing in atypical pap smears. J Virol Antivir Res 2013;2:1.
- Kent JR, et al. Herpes simplex virus latency-associated gene function. Journal of Neurovirology 2003;9:285-290.
- Kaya S. HIV treatment with once-daily single tablet regimens. Mol Med Ther 2012;2:1.
- Jones C. Herpes simplex virus type 1 and bovine herpesvirus 1 latency. Critical Microbiology Reviews 2003;16:79â95.
- Root-Bernstein R, et al. Antigenic complementarity between influenza a virus and haemophilus influenzae may drive lethal co-infection such as that seen in 1918-19 pandemic. J Virol Antivir Res 2013;2:1.
- Duri K and Stray-Pedersen B. HIV/AIDS in africa: trends, missing links and the way forward. J Virol Antivir Res 2013;2:1.
- Khanna KM, et al. Immune control of herpes simplex virus during latency. Current Opinion in Immunology 2004;16:463-469.
- Jabareen A, et al. Effect of extracts of passiflora edulis leaves on herpes viruses infection. J Virol Antivir Res.2:2.
- Sinclair J and Sissons P. Latency and reactivation of human cytomegalovirus. Journal of General Virology 2006;87:1763-1779.
- Mishra KP, et al. Plant derived antivirals: a potential source of drug development. J Virol Antivir Res 2013;2:2.
- Streblow DN and Nelson JA. Models of HCMV latency and reactivation. Trends in Microbiology 2003;11:293-295.
- Turett GS, et al. Vitamin D levels in an HIV-infected and uninfected cohort in new york city. J Virol Antivir Res 2013;2:2.
- Thorley-Lawson DA. EpsteinâBarr virus: exploiting the immune system. Nature Reviews 2001;1:75-82.
- AppolinÃ¡rio CM, et al. Ribavirin has an in vitro antiviral effect in rabies virus infected neuronal cells but fails to provide benefit in experimental rabies in mice. J Virol Antivir Res 2013;2:2.
- Thorley-Lawson DA. EBV the prototypical human tumor virus -just how bad is it? Molecular Mechanisms in Allergy and Clinical Immunology 2005;116:251-261.
- KhoMML et al. Gastro-intestinal involvement of primary varicella zoster virus infection in a renal transplant recipient. J Virol Antivir Res. 2004;3:3.
- Wagner EK and Bloom DC. Experimental investigation of herpes simplex virus latency. Clinical Microbiology Reviews 1997;10:419-443.
- Chheda P, et al. Study of HIV-1 co-receptor tropism and resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitors in the indian patients for inducting new antiretroviral drugs in treatment regimens recipient. J Virol Antivir Res 2014;3:3.
- Aliyari R, et al. RNA-based viral immunity initiated by the Dicer family of host immune receptors. Immunol Rev 2009;227-176.
- Zaki MES, et al. Pilot study of epstein barr virus infection at the onset of acute lymphoblastic leukaemia in egyptian children. J Virol Antivir Res 2014;3:3.
- Coiras M, et al. Understanding HIV-1 latency provides clues for the eradication of long-term reservoirs. Nat Rev Microbiol 2009;7.
- Gutierrez JA, et al.Vitamin D metabolites inhibit hepatitis c virus and modulate cellular gene expression. J Virol Antivir Res 2014;3:3.
- Crotty S and Andino R. Implications of high RNA virus mutation rates: Lethal mutagenesis and the antiviral drug ribavirin. Microbes Infect 2002;4.
- Sadeghi M, et al. Increased serum kynurenine level is associated with severity of kidney injury in puumala hantavirus infection. J Virol Antivir Res 2014;3:4.
- Cullen BR. Five questions about viruses and microRNAs. PLoS Pathog 2010;6.
- Maselko MB, et al. Basant, a polyherbal topical microbicide candidate inhibits different clades of both ccr5 and cxcr4 tropic, lab-adapted and primary isolates of human immunodeficiency virus-1 in vitro infection. J Virol Antivir Res 2014;3:4.
- Ding SW and Voinnet O. Antiviral immunity directed by small RNAs. Cell. 2007;130.
- Coppel E, et al. BA randomized clinical trial of pegylated interferon for acute hepatitis c virus infection in active injection drug users. J Virol Antivir Res 2014;3:3.
- Kutzler MA and Weiner DB. DNA vaccines: Ready for prime time? Nat Rev Genet 2008;9.
- You DM, et al. Twice daily dosing of telaprevir for treatment-naive and treatment-experienced patients with hepatitis c infection. J Virol Antivir Res 2014;3:4.
- Lisnica VJ, et al. Modulation of natural killer cell activity by viruses. Curr Opin Microbiol 2010;13.
- Zaki MS, et al. Occult hepatitis b among patients under hemodialysis at mansoura university hospitals: prevalence and risk factors. J Virol Antivir Res 2014;3:1.
- Liu TC and Kirn D. Gene therapy progress and prospects cancer: Oncolytic viruses. Gene Ther. 2008;15.
- Yamakawa K, et al. Response-guided peginterferon a-2a monotherapy for hemodialysis patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Virol Antivir Res 2014;3:1.
- Lu LF and Liston A. MicroRNA in the immune system, microRNA as an immune system. Immunology 2009;127.
- KarbalaieNiya MH, et al. Comparison of real-time rt-pcr assay with direct sequencing for detection of sensitivity or resistant to oseltamivir in influenza a/h3n2 viruses. J Virol Antivir Res 2014;3:1.
- Mallery DL, et al. Antibodies mediate intracellular immunity through tripartite motif-containing 21 (TRIM21). PNAS USA, 2010;107.
- Russo RR, et al. Phospholipase A2 crotoxin b isolated from the venom of crotalus durissus terrificus exert antiviral effect against dengue virus and yellow fever virus through its catalytic activity. J Virol Antivir Res 2014;3:1.
- Randall RE and Goodbourn S. Interferons and viruses: An interplay between induction, signalling, antiviral responses and virus countermeasures. J Gen Virol 2008;89.
- Chheda P, et al. Study of HIV-1 co-receptor tropism and resistance to integrase strand transfer inhibitors in the indian patients for inducting new antiretroviral drugs in treatment regimens recipient. J Virol Antivir Res 2014;3:3.
- Sen GC. Viruses and interferons. Annu Rev Microbiol 2001;55.
- Zaki MES, et al. Pilot Study of Epstein Barr virus Infection at the Onset of Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia in Egyptian Children. J Virol Antivir Res 2014;3:3.
- Tortorella D, et al. Viral subversion of the immune system. Annu Rev Immunol 2000;18.
- Gutierrez JA, et al. Vitamin D metabolites inhibit hepatitis c virus and modulate cellular gene expression. J Virol Antivir Res 2014;3:3.
- Welsh RM, et al. Immunological memory to viral infections. Annu Rev Immunol 2004;22.
- Brown JC. Control of host gene expression by a herpesvirus transcription factor. J Virol Antivir Res 2015;4:3.
- Christdas J and Shakila H. Occurrence of escape favoring mutations in the targets of 2f5 and 4e10 antibodies of hiv gp41 : a metadata analysis. J Virol Antivir Res 2015;4:3.
- Nurka T, et al. Prevalence of viral hepatitis B and C markers in multitransfused patients with chronic kidney disease compared with the general population in albania. J Virol Antivir Res 2015;4:3.
- ColÃ³n, et al. HIV Gp120 sequence variability associated with hand in hispanic women. J Virol Antivir Res 2015;4:3.
- El-Wahab EWA, et al. Seroprevalence, immunostatus and factors associated with blood borne viral infections among egyptian municipal solid waste workers. J Virol Antivir Res 2015;4:4.
- Aseel DG, et al. Two isolates of potato virus y (pvy) and the response of different potato cultivars against the viral infection. J Virol Antivir Res 2015;4:4.
- Shi C, et al. The influence of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection on the expression of cellular prion protein in marc-145 cells. J Virol Antivir Res 2016;4:4.
- Mahmud-Al-Rafat A, et al. Understanding the complex relationship between the human pathogen hantavirus and its rodent reservoirs underpins a rational disease control strategy. J Virol Antivir Res 2016;4:4.
- Grijalva-Chon JM and Longoria CR. Viral threats in aquaculture: the battle continues. J Virol Antivir Res 2015;4:1
- Ahmed AM, et al. Role of interleukin-10, interleukin-12 in the response prediction during combined peg-interferon-alpha 2a and ribavirin therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis C. J Virol Antivir Res 2015;4:1.
- VÃ¡zquez-Santiago F, et al. Longitudinal analysis of cerebrospinal fluid and plasma hiv-1 envelope sequences isolated from a single donor with HIV asymptomatic neurocognitive impairment. J Virol Antivir Res 2015;4:1.
- Ahmad N. Influence of HIV-1 genetic variability on vertical transmission and pathogenesis. J Virol Antivir Res 2015;4:1.
- FÃ©rir G, et al. Griffithsin, alone and combined with all classes of antiretroviral drugs, potently inhibits hiv cell-cell transmission and destruction of CD4+ T-cells. J Antivir Antiretrovir 2012;4:103-112.
- Christopher GW, et al. Biological warfare: a historical perspective. In: Lederberg J, (Ed.) Biological weapons. Limiting the threat. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press 1999;175.
- Sguazza GH and Reynaldi FJ. Bee Viruses: An Emerging Problem That Need Better Diagnosis, Prevention and Control Strategies. J Virol Antivir Res 2012;4:2.
- Trevisatano SI. The âHittite plaqueâ an epidemic of tularemia and the first record of biological warfare. Med Hypotheses 2007;69:1371-1374.
- Shaheen M, et al. Anti-rotaviral effects of calliandra haematocephala leaf extracts in-vitro and in-vivo. J Virol Antivir Res. 2015;4:1.
- Grmek MD. Les ruses de guerre dans lâAntiquite. Rev Etud Grec 1979;92:141-163.
- Chanda SD, et al. Cordycepin an adenosine analogue executes anti rotaviral effect by stimulating induction of type i interferon. J Virol Antivir Res 2015;4:2.
- Derbes VJ. De Mussis and the Great Plague of 1348. JAMA 1966;196:179-182.
- Srivastava S and Kanyalkar M. To probe the conformational adaptability of conserved g-p-g-r segment in the v3 loop of HIV-1. J Antivir Antiretrovir 2012;4:088-093.
- Kevorkyan A, et al. Prevalence of hepatitis a virus in bulgaria. J Virol Antivir Res 2015;4:2.
- Norris J. East or west? The geographic origin of the black death. Bull Hist Med 1977;51:1-24.
- Kirchner JT. A Tolerability review of non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors: focus on laboratory measures of clinical relevance. J Antivir Antiretrovir 2012;4:94-100.
- Hadi QN, et al. Correlation between the HBsAg Level and the peripheral blood lymphocytes profile in chronic hepatitis b patients from malaysia. J Virol Antivir Res 2016;5:2.
- Noorali S, et al. Human microRNA-602 inhibits Hepatitis C virus genotype 1b infection and promotes tumor suppressor gene expression in a hepatoma cell line. J Virol Antivir Res 2016;5:2.
- Sindhura BR, et al. Lectins: magic bullet towards HIV gp120. J Antivir Antiretrovir 2012;4:101-102.
- Ma X, et al. Development of an indirect-elisa to detect antibodies against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus nucleocapsid protein in gansu china. J Virol Antivir Res 2016;5:2.
- Aljarbou AN. Current prevalence of hbv and hcv seropositivity: the initiative for attentiveness and deterrence of viral hepatitis in the qassim region of saudi arabia. J Antivir Antiretrovir 2012;4:75-79.
- Brown JC. DNA zip codes in herpesvirus genomes. J Virol Antivir Res 2016;5:2.
- Dimonte S and Babakir-Mina M. Variability and signatures of capsid amino acid of HIV-1 D-subtype from drug-naÃ¯ve and arv-treated individuals. J Virol Antivir Res 2016;5:1.
- Choi WJ, et al. Adefovir plus entecavir therapy in chronic hepatitis b patients with treatment failure to lamivudine-entecavir sequential therapy: outcome at 2 years. J Virol Antivir Res 2016;5:1.
- Shrivastava KR, et al. Assessment of T-cell immunoregulatory cytokine-patterns for liver fibrosis in chronic hepatitis b patients before and after interferon therapy. J Virol Antivir Res 2016;5:1.
- Mukherjee S. Protease inhibitors for recurrent hepatitis c after liver transplantation-when less is more. J Antivir Antiretrovir 2012;4:1
- Aljofan M. The era of scientific blossom. J Antivir Antiretrovir 2012;4:1
- Dong BJ, et al. Safety and effectiveness of tenofovir/emtricitabine or lamivudine plus ritonavir boosted atazanavir in treatment experienced hiv infected adults at two urban private medical practices. J Antivir Antiretrovir 2012;4:1-5.
- Obiako OR, et al. Adverse reactions associated with antiretroviral regimens in adult patients of a university teaching hospital hiv program in zaria, northern nigeria: an observational cohort study. J Antivir Antiretrovir 2012;4:6-13.
- Takuva S, et al. Durability of first line antiretroviral therapy: reasons and predictive factors for modifications in a swaziland cohort. J Antivir Antiretrovir 2012;4:14-20.
- Rockwood N, et al. A comparative analysis of risk factors associated with renal impairment and highly active antiretroviral therapy. J Antivir Antiretrovir 2012;4:21-25.
- Navarro-MercadÃ© J, et al. Long-term effectiveness of first-line antiretroviral theraphy in a cohort of HIV-1 infected patients. J Antivir Antiretrovir 2012;4:26-31.
- Parruti G, et al. Efficacy of 1998 Vs 2006 first-line antiretroviral regimens for hiv infection: an ordinary clinics retrospective investigation. J Antivir Antiretrovir 2012;4:32-37.
- Yanagisawa N, et al. HIV-infected men with an elevated level of serum cystatin c have a high likelihood of developing cancers. J Antivir Antiretrovir 2012;4:38-42.
- Haidara A, et al. Drug resistance pathways and impact of protease mutation l10i/v in HIV- 1 non-b subtypes. J Antivir Antiretrovir 2012;4:43-50.
- Mukherjee S. Boceprevir and calcineurin inhibitors-is there a role for treating hepatitis c recurrence after liver transplantation? J Antivir Antiretrovir 2012;4:3.
- Liu TC, Kirn D (2008) Gene therapy progress and prospects cancer: oncolytic viruses. Gene Ther 15: 877-884.