The Ecology of Algae from and Around Bolan River, Balochistan, Pakistan | Open Access Journals

ISSN: 2320-0189

The Ecology of Algae from and Around Bolan River, Balochistan, Pakistan

Qasima Aga, Mohammad Abass Sumalani, Mudassir Asrar and Saadullah Leghari*

Department of Botany, University of Balochistan Quetta, Pakistan

*Corresponding Author:
Saadullah Leghari
Department of Botany University of Balochistan Quetta, Pakistan.
Tel: +92 81 9211008.
E-mail: drsaadullahleghari@gmail.com

Received: 26/04/2018; Accepted: 30/04/2018; Published: 04/05/2018

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Abstract

Altogether, two hundred and forty eight (248) algal taxa existing in 6 phyla, 10 classes, 16 orders, 36 families, and 80 genera have been collected from a variety of freshwater and soil habitats, of district Kachhi Balochistan. Among various phyla, Bacillarophycota by 86 species (34.68%), Cyanophycota was represented by 59 species (23.79%), Volvophycota by 52 species (20.97%), Chlorophycota by 41 species (16.53%), Euglenophycota by 7 species (2.82%) and Charrophycotaby 2 species (1.21%). For the purpose of collection, ten different sites of the district like Sir-i-Bolan, Goni Pera, Mach, Bibi Nani, Kirtha, Gokurt and certain areas of Dhader, Mithari, Bhag, Qazi waga were surveyed during a study (2013-2017) and simultaneously they have been investigated on the ground of morphological and cytological aspects. They have been determined taxonomically and described on the basis of such characters. Most of the taxa were reported for the first time from this region of study but all of them appeared to be taxonomically known species.

Keywords

Algae, Distribution, Bolan Rever, Balochistan.

Introduction

Introduction and map of study area has already been published in our previous paper [1]. The areas which are now integrated in Pakistan were first time worked out by Ghose for algae [2]. He described a number of blue green algal taxa from freshwater habitats of Lahore [3]. Randhawa was another phycologist who worked on Chlorophycean members of Lahore [4,5]. Misra et al., studied the fresh water algae of Eastern Uttar Pradesh, India. These communications dealt with morphological and taxonomical description of different fresh water algae distributed in class Chlorophyceae and Bacillariophyceae. Lot of work on freshwater algae of Pakistan has been done. A widespread study on freshwater algal species belonging to class Cyanophyceae, Chlorophyceae, Xanthophyceae, and Bacillariophyceae from various vicinities of Charsadda District was carried out by Sarim and Zaman [6]. From different Districts of Punjab large collections on green algae were worked out by Ali et al. [7]. Sarim et al., reported a contribution to the algal flora of Peshawar from various freshwater habitats. Members of Chlorophyceae dominated their collections. Ali et al., illustrated green algae from Punjab and its adjoining areas of Pakistan. The recent report on diversity of green algae was described in Swat by Ali et al. [8-10].

In Balochistan Province, the work done is meager. However, Faridi reported 5 species of Charophyceae. Hussain et al., described 92 species of Spirogyra for the first time for Balochistan, of which 13 species were new records for Pakistan. Hussain and Anjum, reported 20 more species from snail shells of Khuzdar and Cymbella (10 spp.), Navicula (11 spp.) from the freshwater habitats of Quetta to Pishin valley. Hussain et al., identified freshwater algae of Hanna Urak valley and also reported some freshwater algae from Ziarat [11-14]. Anjum et al., worked out epileptic algae from Balochistan and also made a survey for Oscillatoria genus in Quetta to Pishin valley. Zaidi et al., observed the phytosociological studies on Bacillariophyceae of Quetta district and worked on algal flora of surface and ground water of Quetta district [15,16]. Zaidi and Hussain described 1000 freshwater algal species from the province of Balochistan. Shameel studied new species of Chara from coastal areas of Balochistan [17,18]. In our recent study two species Pediastrum simplex var. echinulatum Wittrock 1883 in Wittrock et Nordstedt 1883 and Penium cucurbitinum Bisset 1884 were recorded first time for Pakistan from the district.

Materials and Methods

The algal materials growing in various habitats were collected in different ways. Algal material was scrapped from the surface of moist soil for edaphic algae. Very small and floating algae i.e., planktonic types were collected with the help of strainer, with intermediate sized nets, epilithic and epioikotic or epipelic algae were gently detached from their respective substrata without breaking the holdfast. Twigs of submerged water plants having epiphytic algae were also gently squeezed. For preliminary identification, the specimens were carefully observed in the field. The material was numbered, dated and preserved in 5% formalin.

The collected materials were taken to the laboratory and each of which was examined under microscope for separation of different types existed. The specimens were a little stained within iodine solution to make cell-walls and other structures further evidently visible. The semis permanent slides of each sample were prepared using glycerin jell and were examined under different magnification of compound microscope. After a detailed investigation under, microphotography was made with the help of Microsystem. And with the use of calibrated optical micrometer different dimensions were measured [19].

The collected materials of algae were determined taxonomically with the help of standard literatures [20-36].

Results and Discussion

In the present study a total of 248 algal species belonging to the 6 phyla with Bacillariophycota (86 species), Cyanophycota (59 species), Volvophycota (52 species), Chlorophycota (41 species), Euglenophycota (7 species) and Charophycota (3 species). These were distributed among 10 classes, 16 Orders, 37 families which were reported from District Kachhi (Table 1). All of them were identified up to species level. Pedistrum simplex (Meyen) Corda var. echinulatum (Wittrock) and Penium cucurbitinum Bisset was first time recorded for Pakistan (Sumalani and Asrar, 2014). Kachhi District has remarkable altitudinal variations favoring various types of vegetations. This great altitudinal variation with a distinct difference in the climate and habitat might have produced a great diversity also in algal flora. It was found from the previous study that different algal species were dominant at diversified ecological condition i.e., found as attached to soil, epilithic, epipelic, epiphytic, planktonic or free floating. Similar observations were madeby Shrestha that algae are heterogeneous and diverse nature in distribution [37].

Algae with systematic position Habitat Localities
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Kingdom:   Monera -- - - - - - - - - - -
Phylum:     Cyanophycota -- - - - - -- - - - - -
Class :            Chroocophyceae -- - - - - - - - - - -
Order :           Chroococcales -- - - - - - - - - - -
Family:          Chroococcaceae -- - - - - - - - - - -
Aphnocapsa (Nageli)
A. littoralis Edaphic - - - - + - - - - -
A. grevillei Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
A. incerta Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
Chroococcus (Nägeli)
C. varius Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
C. limneticus -- - - - - - + - + - -
C. limneticus var. elegans Planktonic - - - + - - + - - -
C. turgidus Planktonic + + + + + + + + - -
C. tenax Epilithic + + + - + - - - - -
C. minor Planktonic + - + - - - - + + -
C. aphanocoagoides Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
C. disperses var. mino Planktonic - - - - + + - - - -
C.pulcherrimus Planktonic + - - - - - - - - -
Coelosphaerium (Naegeli)
C.dubium Planktonic + - + - + - - - - -
C.kuetzingianum Planktonic + - + + + - - - - -
C.naegelianum Planktonic + - + - + - - - - -
Gomphosphaeria (Kuetz)
G. aponina Planktonic - - + - + - - - - -
Synechococcus (Nägeli)
S. aeruginosus Epipelic - - - - + - - - - -
Merismopedia (Meyen)
M. convolutaPlanktonic   + - + + + - - - - -
M. trollerii Planktonic - - + + + + - + - -
M. elegans Planktonic + - - - + - - - - -
M. tenuissima Planktonic - - + - - + - - - +
M.glauca Planktonic + + - - - - + + - -
M.punctata Planktonic - + + - + - + - + -
Microcystis (Kützing ex Lemmermann)
M. aeruginosa Planktonic - - - - + + - - - -
M. viridis Planktonic - - - - - - - + - -
Family:   Entophysalidaceae
Johannesbaptistia J. de Toni
J.  pellucid Epipelic - - + - + - - - - -
Class:      Nostocophyceae --                    
Order:     Nostocales --                    
Family:   Nostocaceae --                    
Anabaena Bory de Saint-Vincent
A. inaequalis Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
Family:   Oscillatoraceae --                    
Borzia Cohn ex Gomont --                    
Lyngbya (Agardh 1824)
L. major Epipelic - - + - - + - - - -
L. versicolor Epipelic - - - - + + - - - -
L. birgei Epipelic - - - - + + - - - -
L. majuscule Epipelic - - - + - + - - - -
L. taylorii Epipelic + - - - - - - - - -
Oscillatoria (Vaucher 1903)
O. sancta Planktonic - - - + - - - - - -
O. limosa Planktonic - - - + - + - - - -
O. curviceps Planktonic - - - + - - - - - -
O. princeps Planktonic - - - - + - - + - -
O. subbrevis Planktonic - + - - - - - - - -
O. rubescense Planktonic - - + - - - - - - -
O. Formosa Epipelic + - - + - + + + + +
O. prolifica Planktonic - - + + - - - - - -
O. agardhii Planktonic - - - + - - - - - -
O. raoi Epipelic - + - + - - - - - -
O. geminate Planktonic - + + - + - - - - -
O. tenuis Planktonic - - - + + + + - + +
O. tenuis var. natans Planktonic - - + - - - - - - -
Family:   Rivularaceae                      
Calothrix Agardhex Bornet and Flahault
C. fusca Planktonic - - - + - - - - - -
Gloeotrichia J.G. Agardh
G. natans Planktonic - - - + - - - - - -
Homoeothrix --                    
(Thuret ex Bornet & Flahault)
Kirchner                      
H. Juliana Epipelic + - - - - - - - - -
Phormidium  (Kuetzing)
P. tenue Epipelic + - + - - - - - - -
P. foveolarum Epipelic - - - - + - - - + -
P. lucidum Epipelic - - - - + - - - - -
P. minnesotense Epipelic - - + - + - - - - -
P. inundatum Epipelic - - + + - - - - - -
Schizothrix (Kuetzing)
S. tinctoria Epipelic - - + - - - - - - -
Spirulina (Turpin)
S. major Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
S. princeps Planktonic - + - - - - - - - -
Family:   Scytonemataceae                      
Scytonema A. Agardh                      
S. archangelii Epilithic - - - + - - - - - -
S. ocellatum Epilithic - - - + - - - - - -
S. tolypothricoides Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
Kingdom:  Protista --                    
Phylum:   Volvophycota --                    
Class:           Volvophyceae --                    
Order:          Chlorococcales --                    
Family:        Coelastraceae --                    
Coelastrum (Naegeli 1849)
C. microporum var. ocetaedrium Planktonic - - - + - + - - - -
C. indicum Planktonic + - - - - - - - - -
Family:    Hydrodictyaceae --                    
Pediastrum (Meyen, 1829)
P. simplex var. echinulatum Planktonic - - - - - - - + - -
P. duplex var. regulosum Planktonic + - - - - - - - - -
P. integrum Planktonic + - + + - - - - - -
P. boryanum Planktonic + - + + + - - - - -
Family:    Oocystaceae --                    
Chlorella (Beijerinck) --                    
C. vulgaris Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
Closteriopsis (Lemmermann)
C. longissimi Planktonic - - - - - - - - + +
Monoraphidium Komarkova-Legnerova                      
M. arcuatum Planktonic - - + - - - - - - -
Family:   Scenedesmaceae                      
Scenedesmus (Meyen)                      
S. quadricauda Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
S. acuminatus Planktonic - - - - - - - - + -
S. obtusus Planktonic - - + - + - - - - -
S. disciformis Planktonic + - - - + - - - - -
S. bijuga Planktonic + - - + - + + - - +
S. bijugatus Planktonic + - + - - - - - - -
S. arcuatus Planktonic + - + - - - - - - -
S. arcuatus var. platydisca Planktonic + - - - - - - - - -
S. planctonicus Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
Order:      Chlorosarcinales                      
Family:     Palmellaceae                      
Sphaerocystis  (Chodat 1897)
S. schroeterii Planktonic - - - + - - - - - -
Palmodictyon (Kuetzing)
P. viride Planktonic - - - - - + - - - -
Order:    Volvocales                      
Family:   Chlamydomonaceae                      
Chlamydomonas (Ehrenberg)
C. polypyrenoideum Planktonic + - - - - - - - - -
Class:      Desmidophyceae                      
Order:     Desmidales                      
Family:   Desmidaceae                      
Cosmarium Corda ex Ralfs
C. moniliformis Planktonic - - + - - + - - - -
C. bioculatum Planktonic/attached - - - - + - - - + -
C. subtumidium Planktonic/attached Planktonic/attached + - - - - - - - - +
C. misellum Planktonic - - + - - - - - - -
C. cucumis Planktonic - + - - - + + + - -
C. impressulum Planktonic + - - - - - - - - -
C. pachydermum var. aethiopicum Planktonic - - - - - - - - - -
C. nitidulum Planktonic/attached - - - + - - - + - -
C. constrictum Planktonic - + - - - - + - - -
C. circular Planktonic + - - - - - - + - -
C. sportella var.  subnudum Planktonic - - + - - - - - - -
C. subcrenatum Planktonic/attached - - + - - - - - - -
C. subcostatum Planktonic - - - - - - + - - -
C. formosulum var. nathorstii Planktonic + - - - - - - - - -
C. monomazum Planktonic - + - - - - - - - -
C. obtusatum Planktonic/attached - + - - - - - - - -
C. Brebissonii Planktonic + - - - - - - - - -
C. ocellatum    var. notatum Planktonic - - - - - + - - + -
C. paragranatoides Planktonic + - - - - - - + - +
C. botrytis Planktonic/attached - - - + - - - - - -
C. subcucumis Planktonic - - - - - - + - - -
C. conspersum Planktonic - - - - + - - + - +
C. margaritatum Planktonic/attached + - - - + - - - - -
C. tetraophthalmum Planktonic + - + - - - - - - -
Closterium (Nitzsch)
C. moniliferum Epilithic       + - + + + + + - - -
C. littorale Epilithic - - + - + - - - - -
Penium (Brebisson)
P. cucurbitinum Planktonic + - + - + - - - - -
Euastrum  (Ehrenberg)
E. spinulosum Planktonic - - - + + - - - - -
Staurastrum  (Meyen)
S. margaritaceum Epilithic       + - + + - - - - - -
S.punctulatum Planktonic/attached - - + + - - - - - -
S. alternans Planktonic + - - - - - - - - -
Kingdom:  Phycota --                    
Phylum :   Chlorophycota --                    
Class :           Ulvophyceae --                    
Order :          Ulotrichales --                    
Family:        Ulotrichaceae --                    
Binuclearia (Wittrock)
B. tectorum Planktonic - - + - - - - - - -
Geminella (Turpin)
G.interrupta Planktonic - - + + - - - - - -
Ulothrix (Kützing)
U. tenerrima Epilithic/ Epiphytic - - + - - - - - - -
U. tenuissima Epilithic - - + - + - - - - -
U. moniliformis Planktonic - - + - - - - - - -
Order:     Microsporales                      
Family:   Microsporaceae                      
Microspora (Thuret)
M. loefgrenii Epilithic/ Epiphytic + - - - - - - - - -
Order:   Coleochaetales                      
Family:  Coleochaetaceae                      
Coleochaete de Brébission                      
C. pulvinata Epiphytic - - + - - - - - - -
Class:      Zygnemophyceae                      
Order:     Oedogoniales                      
Family:   Oedogoniaceae                      
Bulbochaete (C. A. Agardh)
B. intermedia Epiphytic - - - - + - - - - -
Oedogonium (Link)
O.  foveolatumPlanktonic/attached Planktonic/attached + - + - - - - - - -
O. vulgare Planktonic + - + - - + - - - -
O. bohimicumPlanktonic/attached Planktonic/attached + + - + + - + - - -
Order:     Zygnemales                      
Family:   Zygnemaceae                      
Mougeotia (C. A. Agardh)
M. genuflexa Planktonic - - - - + - + - - -
M. scalaris Planktonic/attached - - + - + - - - - -
M. abnormis Planktonic + - + - + + - - - -
M. calcarea Planktonic - - - - + - + - - -
M. sphaerocarpa Planktonic + - - - + - - - - -
Spirogyra (Link)
S. narcissiana Planktonic - - - - - + + - - -
S. rectangularis   - + - - - - - - - +
S. tetrapla Planktonic - - + - - - + - - -
S. acanthophora Planktonic - - + - - - - + - -
S. gracilis Planktonic + - + - - - - - - -
S. condensate Planktonic/attached - - - + - - + + - -
S.  juergensii Planktonic - + + - - - - - - -
S. subsalsa Planktonic - - + - - - - - - +
S. porticalis Planktonic - - + - - + - + - -
S. mirabilis Planktonic + - + - - - - - - -
S. submaxima Planktonic - - - - + - - - + +
S. occidentalis Planktonic - + + - - - - - - -
S. setiformis Planktonic - - + - - - + - - -
S. ellipsospora Planktonic - - - - + - - - - +
S. scorbiculata Planktonic - - + - - - + - - -
Zygnema (C. A. Agardh)
Z.  spontaneum Planktonic - + - - - + + - - -
Z. oveidanum Planktonic - - + - - - - + - -
Z. tenue Planktonic - - + + - - - - - -
Z. pectinatum Planktonic + - - - - - - - - -
Z. excrassum Planktonic - - - - - + + - - -
Z. kashmirense Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
Z. sterile Planktonic + - + - - - - - - -
Class:        Siphonocladophyceae                      
Order:       Cladophorales                      
Family:     Cladophoraceae                      
Cladophora (Kützing)
C. fracta Epilithic - - - + + - + - - -
C. glomerata Epilithic + + + - + + + - - -
C. glomerata fa. Kuetzingiana Epilithic + - + - - - - - - -
Phylum:    Euglenophycota                      
Class:            Euglenophyceae                      
Order :          Euglenales                      
Family :        Euglenacaea                      
Euglena (Ehrenberg)
E. sanguine Planktonic - - - - - - - + - +
E. acus Planktonic - - - - - - - + - -
E. obtuse Planktonic - - - - - - - + - -
E. viridis Planktonic - - - - + - - + - -
E. gracilis   - - - - + - - - - -
Phacus (Dujardin)
P. acuminatus Planktonic - - - - - - - + - -
Lepocinclis (Perty)
L. acuta Planktonic - - - - - - - + - -
Phylum:    Charophycota                      
Class:            Charophyceae                      
Order:           Charales                      
Family:         Characeae                      
Nitella Linnaeus (C. Agardh)
N. tenuissima Epilithic   - - - - + - - - - -
CharaLinnaeus                      
C. vulgaris Epilithic + + + + + + - - - -
C. fragilis Epilithic - - - + + + + - + -
Phylum:    Bacillarophycota                      
Class:            Bacillarophyceae                      
Order:           Bacillarales                      
Family:         Achnanthaceae                      
Achnanthes (Bory)
A.microcephala Planktonic - - - - - - + - - -
Cocconeis (Ehrenberg)
C. placentula Epiphytic + - + + + - - - - -
C. placentula var. lineata Epiphytic + - - - - - - - - -
C. pediculus Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
Psammothidium (Bukhtiyarova & Round)
P. lacustre Planktonic - - - - - - + - - -
Family:   Bacillariaceae                      
Bacillaria J. F. Gmelin  in  Linnaeus
B. paxillifer Planktonic - - - - - - - - + -
Family:    Cymbellaceae                      
Amphora (Ehrenberg)                      
A. ovalis Planktonic - - - + - - - - - -
Cymbella (C.A. Agardh)
C.naviculiformis Planktonic + - + - + - + - + -
C. cuspidate Epiphytic - - - - + - + - - -
C affinis Planktonic - - + + + - - - + +
C. prostrata Epilithic/Planktonic + - + + + - + - - -
C. ventricosa Planktonic - - - - + + - - - -
C. parva Planktonic - - + + - - - + - -
C. aspera Planktonic - + + + + - - - + +
C. lanceolate Epilithic      + - + + + + + + - -
Family:   Diatomaceae                      
Diatoma  De Candle
D. anceps Planktonic - - + - - - - - - -
D. heimale Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
D. heimale var. mesodon Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
D. vulgare Planktonic - - + - - - - - - -
D. vulgare var. breve Planktonic + - - - - - - - - -
D. vulgaris Planktonic - - + - - - - - - -
Family:    Epithemaceae                      
Denticula (Kuetz)                      
D. elegans Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
Epithemia (Brebisson)
E. zebra Planktonic + - - - - - - - - -
E. argus Planktonic - - - + + - - - - -
Rhopalodia (Mueller)
R. ventricosa Planktonic + - - - - - - - - -
R. gibba Planktonic + - - - - - - - - -
Family:   Fragilariaceae                      
Fragilaria (Lyngbye)
F. vaucheriae Planktonic + - - - - - + - - -
F. pinnata Planktonic - - + + + + - - - +
F. capucina Planktonic - - + - + + - - + -
F. virescens Planktonic - + - - + - - + - -
Synedra  (Ehrenberg)
S. acus Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
S.delicatissima var. angustissima Planktonic - - - - + + + - - -
S. ulna Planktonic + + + + + + + - + -
S. ulna var. aequalis Planktonic + - - - + - - - - -
S. ulna var. contracta Planktonic + - + - - - - - - -
Family:   Naviculaceae                      
Amphipleura (Kuetzing)
A. pellucida Planktonic - - + - - - - - - -
Anomoeoneis (Pftzer)
A. sphaerophora Planktonic - - - - - - - - - +
A. exilis Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
A. serians Planktonic + - - - - - - - - -
Mastogloia (Thwaitesin W. Smith)
M. elliptica Planktonic + - - - - - - - - -
M. smithii Planktonic - + - - + - - - - -
M. smithiivar. Amphicephala Planktonic - + - - + - - - - -
Navicula (Bory)
N. tuscula Planktonic - + - - - - - - - -
N. salinarum Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
N. cryptocephala Planktonic - - + - - - - - + -
Haslea (R. Simonsen)
H.crucigera Planktonic - - + - - - - - - -
Diploneis (Ehrenberg)
D. elliptica Planktonic - - + - - - - - - -
Family   Pinnulariaceae                      
Pinnularia (Ehrenberg)
P. nobilis Epiphytic + - + - - - + - - -
P. braunnii Epiphytic + - - - + - - - - -
Caloneis (Cleve)
C. bacillaris Planktonic - + - - - - - - - -
Stauroneis (Ehrenberg)
S. phoenicentron Planktonic - + - - - - + - + -
S. phoenicentron var. amphilepta Planktonic - + - - - - - - + -
S. phyllodes Planktonic - - - - - - - - + -
S. anceps Planktonic - - + - - - - + + -
Gyrosigma (Hassal)
G. attenuatum Planktonic + - - - + - - - + -
G. wormleyi Planktonic - - - - - - - - - +
G. acuminatum Planktonic - - + - - + + - - -
G. eximium Planktonic - - - - - - - - + -
G. orbitum Planktonic - - - - - - - - + -
G. scalproides Planktonic - - - - - - - - - +
G. spencerii Planktonic - - - - - - - - + -
G. kuetzingii Planktonic - - - - - - - - + -
G. hippocampus Planktonic - - - - - - - - + -
Pleurosigma (W.M. Smith)
P. angulatum Planktonic - - + - - - - - + -
Family:   Gomphonemaceae --                    
Gomphonema  (C.A. Agardh)
G. subapiculatum Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
G. ghosea Epiphytic + - - - + - - - - -
G. abbreviatum Planktonic - - - - + - - - - -
G. olivaceum Planktonic - - + - - - - - - -
G. gracile var. dichotoma Epiphytic - - - + + - - - - -
G.angustatum Planktonic - - - + - - - - - -
G. lanceolatum Planktonic + - - - - - - - - -
Gomphoneis (Cleve)
G.herculeana Planktonic - - + + - - - - - -
Family:   Nitzschaceae                      
Nitzschia (Hassal)
N. brevissima Planktonic - - - - - + - - + +
N. vermicularis Planktonic - - + - - - - - + -
N. sigmoidae Planktonic - - - - - - + - + +
N. obtuse Planktonic - - - - + - + - - -
N. hungarica Planktonic - - - + - - - - + -
N. linearis Planktonic + - - - + - - - - -
Family:   Surirellaceae                      
Surirella (Turpin)
S. ovata Planktonic - - - - - - + - - -
S. apiculate Planktonic - - - - - - - - - +
Family:   Swirellaceae                      
Cymatopleura (W. Smith)                      
C. solea Planktonic + - - - - - - - + -
C. elliptica Planktonic + - - - - - - + + +
Family:   Tabellariaceae                      
Tabellaria (Ehrenberg)
T. fenestrate Planktonic - - + - - - + - + -
Family:   Eunotaceae                      
Eunotia (Ehranberg)
E. monodon Planktonic + - + - + - - - - -
Frustulia (C.A. Agardh)
F. rhomboides Planktonic - - - + - - - + + -
Order:     Biddulphiales                      
Family:   Coscinodiscaceae                      
Cyclotella (Kützing and Brébisson)
C. meneghiniana Planktonic - - + - - - - - + -

Table 1: Distribution of freshwater algae from and around the Bolan River, District Kachhi Balochistan in Pakistan.

Taxonomic Diversity

Studies on taxonomic diversity of algae showed that the members of the phylum Bacillariophycota with 32 genera with 86 species were shown to be dominating than the other algal phyla, while phylum Cyanophycota included 18 genera and 59 species ranking second in abundance. The phylum volvophycota and Chlorophycota with their new concept contained 14 genera each with 52 species and 41 species respectively. Phylum Euglenophycota displayed 3 genera with 7 species and Charophycota appeared to be the smallest phylum in diversity having only 2 genera with 3 species [38].

The class Bacillariophyceae found to be the largest class with 32 genera and 86 species and exhibited the largest species diversity with 34.54% of the collected algae. It was further followed by the classes Chroocophyceae with 10 genera and 33 species with 13.25%, Class Desmidophyceae representing 5 genera and 32 species with 12.85; with 9 genera and 21 species, Class Volvophyceae showed 8.43%, Class Zygnemophyceae (Shameel, 2006) with 6 genera and 31 species showing 12.45%. The Class Ulvophyceae showing 5 genera with 7 species and Class Euglenophyceae with 3 genera and 7 species contained 2.81% each of the total collected algae. The Class Siphonocladophyceae with 1 genus and 3 species and the class Charophyceae having 2 genera with 3 species, appeared to be the least distributed classes and contained only 1.2% of the total algae collected. The fact that the class Charophyceae with least diversity of 1.2% was observed because the Charophycean members are not so commonly represented in Pakistan [39,40].

Study at ordinal level displayed the Bacillariales was most frequently distributed Order with 31 genera and 85 species showing the largest diversity with 34.14% of the collected algae in it. As the orders Bacillarales belongs to the class Bacillariophyceae that come out to be the most greatly distributed class as has previously been expressed above. It was followed by the order Nostocales with 10 genera and 33 species exhibiting 13.25%, Desmidales with 5 genera and 32 species comprising 12.85%, Zygnemales with 3 genera and 27 species including 10.84% and Chroococcales with 8 genera and 26 species counting 10.44% of the total collected algae. While rest of the orders were represented very poorly (>3%) among the collected population. Similarly Volvocales, Microsporales, Coleochaetales and Biddulphiales were the most feebly distributed orders with only 1 genus with just 1 species each, showing only 0.4% representation by each one of them in the population of the collected algae.

Diversity of Localities

In the present study, 10 different localities were visited for algal collection. The largest number of species was found at the Kirtha site, displaying 19.47% diversity of the collected species. It was followed by the collections of Mach site with a diversity of 18.65%. These areas were further followed by the cold areas of Sir-i-Bolan, showing a significant number of species, having 12.7% diversity. Bibi Nani and Dhader also displayed 10.45% and 8.2% diversities, respectively. The areas of Bhag and Gokurt sites were quite poor in the distribution of algae, exhibiting a diversity of 7.58% and 7.2% respectively. The smallest number of species was observed in Mithari and Goni Pera sites, with a very slight difference, showing diversities of 5.94% and 5.74%, respectively. The Qazi Waga site displayed a least diversity of different algal phyla exhibiting only 4.1%.

Habitat Diversity

In this collection out of the total explored species, an overwhelming number was found in the planktonic condition. Approximately 85.54% of the collected species found in planktonic condition. Although most of such species were not real plankton, but they were found in the detached condition during collection. Such observations were previously found on the occurrence of blue-green algae [41,42]. Edaphic condition was the next category in which individuals were collected, including about 6.42%. About 5.62% of the collected species were found as epipelic, epilithic or epiphytes. These were the major habitats, in which collected algae commonly occurred. Only a few species occurred in this condition making 2.41%.

Conclusion

In the above-mentioned previous study, the collected blue-green algae occurred in edaphic habitat in an appreciable amount (Naz et al., 2004 a, b, c). Apart from edaphic habitats all the other categories were missing among collected species of the Charophycota and only three species could be collected and therefore no suitable generalization may be made with these data. Usually, they mainly grow in the benthic condition, attached at the bottom of ponds or slow running water channel [43-45].

References