Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science, South Valley University, Qena, Egypt

- *Corresponding Author:
- Mansour M

Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science

South Valley University, Qena, Egypt

**E-mail:**m.mansour4@hotmail.com

**Received date:** 27/09/2016; **Accepted date:** 02/11/2016; **Published date:** 10/11/2016

**Visit for more related articles at** Research & Reviews: Journal of Statistics and Mathematical Sciences

In this paper we consider a reaction-diffusion system in terms of a degenerate nonlinear parabolic system of equations modelling spatiotemporal patterns generated by bacterial colonies. A three-dimensional phase space analysis is carried out to show the existence of traveling wave front of sharp type for a minimum speed as well as smooth wave fronts for large speeds. Further, such wave fonts solutions are found by solving numerically the time-dependent problem.

Nonlinear diffusion, Degenerate nonlinear parabolic system, Traveling wave dynamics, Sharp front

Wave front propagation phenomena arise in a large variety of spatially extended systems in physics, chemistry, and biology. Particularly, propagating fronts play an important role in the spreading of bacteria, in population dynamics, in the speed of epidemics, or in the propagation of flames and chemical reactions. There has been considerable interest in the modelling of such wave patterns bacterial colony patterns. Examples include a diffusion limited aggregation model [1], a lattice model [2], a communicating walker [3], a reaction diffusion model [4]. In this case, diffusion simulates random motion processes of bacterial cells. The analysis of such models can lead to an identifying whether the model can simulate the occurrence of such wave patterns and determining the shape and velocity of the traveling wave front, representing the growth velocity of a bacterial colony.

In this paper, we are concerned with the following model system

(1.1)

where m ≥ 1, Such reaction diffusion system (1.1) with nonlinear dif-fusion was proposed for modeling spatio-temporal
patterns generated by colonies of *Bacillus subtilis* [4,5]. Here *b* (*x, t*) represents the density of the bacterial cells at time t and
spatial position *x*, and *n*(*x, t*) represents the nutrient concentration. *D _{b}* and

As a result, the authors of Modeling spatio-temporal patterns generated by *Bacillus subtilis* [4] showed, using numerical
simulations, that the model system (1.1) for *m = 1* exhibits traveling wave solutions of the front type. Specifically, they found that
the initial inoculum of bacteria evolves into a traveling wave and the speed of the wave front obtained from the one-dimensional
model is close to that from the two-dimensional case. In Travelling waves in a nonlinear degenerate diffusion model [5], the authors
considered the one-dimensional version of this model with Dn = 0, and addressed the existence and uniqueness problem for this type of solution. By this simplified version, the authors reduced the problem to a phase plane analysis and found that such
solutions exist only for wave speeds greater than some thresh-old speed giving a minimum speed wave which has a sharp
profile. For speeds, greater than this minimum speed the waves are smooth. In addition to a proof of these results by using the
methods of Schauder fixed point theorem and shooting arguments for a more general case has been given in Finite travelling wave
solutions in a degenerate cross-diffusion model for bacterial colony. [7]. Also, in Traveling wave solutions for doubly degenerate
reaction diffusion [8], an approximate equation of the model system (1.1) was studied.

The main purpose of this paper is to consider the model system (1.1) when *D _{n}* ≠ 0 and present a three dimensional phase
space analysis for the traveling wave problem.

The organization of this paper is as follows. In section 2, we carry out a three-dimensional phase space analysis for the
existence problem of traveling wave fronts in this model system with *D _{n}* = 1. This also includes an accurate numerical computation
of a minimum wave speed and different wave front pro les for a special case. In section 3, we argue the time-dependent solutions.
Section 4 contains a conclusion.

**Traveling Waves: Phase Space Analysis**

**Traveling wave system**

If we seek a permanent form traveling wave front solution,*b (x, t ) = B(z ), n (x, t ) = N (z ), z = x − ct* , of (1.1) with
speed c > 0, we must solve,

*(D _{b}N B_{m}B_{z})_{z} + cB_{z} + BN* = 0 (2.1)

*N _{zz} + cN_{z} - BN* = 0,

subject, for a suitable choice of dimensionless variables to,

B →1, N → 0 as z → - ∞, B → 0, N → 1 as z → ∞ (2.2)

A physically acceptable permanent form traveling wave front is a bounded solution of (2.1) with the boundary conditions (2.2). One of the most important questions in the study of (2.1) is that of the existence of a minimum speed traveling wave front solution of sharp type and the estimate of the minimum speed.

Adding equations (2.1) and integrating once gives,

*D _{b}N B_{m}B_{z} + N_{z} + c(B + N-1) = 0*

With this and the new variable *W = N _{z}*, (2.1) is equivalent to the following third order ODEs system.

(2.3)

Then the existence problem reduces to finding a heteroclinic trajectory in the (B, N, W) phase space between the two
equilibrium points (0, 1, 0) and (1, 0, 0), which corresponds to a traveling wave front solution of (1.1) under the above boundary
conditions. This system possesses a singularity at B = N = 0. One can remove this singularity by introducing the new variable such
ζ that *dζ / dz = 1/(B ^{m}(z)N(z)) *> 0. Thus, we obtain the new system.

(2.4)

which is nonsingular. Moreover, if every trajectory solution to (2.3) is nonzero everywhere then (2.3) would be equivalent to
(2.4). If this not the case then there would be z_{*}< ∞ such that B(z_{*}) = 0 and N(z_{*}) = 1. In this case, from therst equation of (2.3),
we have *B ^{m-1} B_{z}(z_{*}) = -c/D_{b}*. This will be shown to correspond a sharp type wave front solution for the system (2.3).

**Local analysis**

The local behavior of the trajectories of (2.4) can be obtained by analyzing (2.4) around each stationary point. By evaluating
the Jacobian matrix associated with (2.4) at (0, 1, 0) we find that (0, 1, 0) is not a simple stationary point and the eigenvalues
are λ_{1} = 0 = λ_{2}, λ_{3} = - c/D_{b}. The corresponding eigenvectors are e_{λ1} = (-1, 1, 0), eλ_{2} = (-1/c, 0, 1) and e_{λ3} = (1, 0, 0), respectively.
Therefore, any traveling wave front trajectory solution must end at (0, 1, 0). To complete this analysis around (0, 1, 0) we find
by an application the Centre Manifold Theorem [9], that (2.4) has a two-dimensional stable manifold or a two-dimensional center
manifold. Both manifolds contain (0, 1, 0). More precisely, the two-dimensional stable manifold is given locally by,

(2.5)

or the two-dimensional center manifold which is given locally by,

(2.6)

This center manifold in B, N > 0 is stable, and the solution trajectory on it asymptotes to (0, 1, 0). To conclude that the trajectory solutions tend to (0; 1; 0) through the stable manifold (2.5) or the center manifold (2.6). Hence, in the case of (2.5) we obtain, from the first equation of (2.4).

(2.7)

so that B 0 as ζ → ∞ and then the first equation of (2.3) gives, for (B, N, W) ≈ (0, 1, 0),

(2.8)

so, that B gets to zero at a finite value of z, i.e., z_{*} as mentioned above. In this case, we then obtain the asymptotic behavior
for wave front of sharp type.

For the case of (2.6) we get, instead,

(2.9)

(2.10)

so that B → 0 as ζ → ∞ and z → ∞. In this case we get the asymptotic behavior for smooth wave fronts.

We complete the local analysis of the trajectories of (2.4) by evaluating the Jacobian matrix at (1, 0, 0). We nd that the
eigenvalues are* v _{1} = 0 = v_{2}, v_{3} = -c/D_{b}* and associated eigenvectors are

(2.11)

Where

Now we consider the phase trajectory equations to discuss the existence of traveling wave front solutions of (1.1). On eliminating the variable from (2.4) or z from (2.3) we obtain the following ordinary differential equations for wave trajectories.

(2.12)

(2.13)

for B, N,W > 0, satisfying BmN = 0 for some nite z = z_{*} with *B ^{m-1} B_{z}(z_{*}) = -c/D_{b}*.

By using the above asymptotic analysis and phase trajectory equations we can show that there is a minimum wave speed c_{*}
> 0 such that traveling wave front solutions exist for c ≥ c_{*}. In the sense that the wave front is of sharp type when c = c_{*}, whereas
it is smooth for c > c_{*}. This will be analyzed numerically for a special case in the next subsection.

**Global analysis **

We solve numerically the phase trajectory equations (2.12) and (2.13) as an initial-value problem, using the fourth-order
Runge-Kutta method [10] with step size control/sti ODE solver and iterating on the wave speed c. The initial conditions were
estimated from equations of (2.11). The resulting solutions for *D _{b}* = 1 and

**Evolution to traveling waves - Time-dependent solutions**

To find traveling wave front solutions and test the stability, we solve numerically the PDE system (1.1) with appropriate initial
conditions. Particulary, we solve a moving boundary problem and show an accurate computation of the sharp wave front with the
minimum speed and smooth wave fronts with large speeds. The values of the minimum speed c* were in agrement with those
calculated from the phase space analysis as shown, for example, for the case *D _{b}* = 1 and

In this paper, we have considered a nonlinear degenerate parabolic system which models bacterial pattern. For this model system, we have carried out a three-dimensional phase space analysis for the existence problem of wave fronts. We have shown the existence of a wave front of sharp type for a minimum speed in addition to the smooth wave fronts for large speeds. Specifically, we have constructed a two-dimensional Centre manifold to show analytically the existence of such smooth wave fronts as well as sharp wave front. Moreover, we have found the time dependent solutions by solving partial differential equation system problem for a special case and showed an accurate numerical computation of the minimum speed and the wave front pro le to confirm the analytical results. In summary, these results of this analysis concerning with the traveling wave problem for this model system of bacterial growth problems may improve previous results in determining the minimum wave speed of sharp fronts and wave front profile.

- Matsushita M and Fujikawa H. Diffusion limited growth in bacterial colony formation. Physica A.1990;168: 498-506.
- Ben-Jacob B, et al. Communication, regulation, and control during complex patterning of bacterial colonies. Fractals. 1994;2: 15-44.
- Ben-Jacob B, et al. Generic modelling of cooperative growth patterns in bacterial colonies. Nature. 1994; 368: 46-49.
- KawasakiK, et al. Modelingspatio-temporal patterns generated by
*Bacillus subtilis*. J Theor Biol. 1997; 188: 177-185. - SatnoianuRA, et al. Travelling waves in a nonlinear degenerate diffusion model for bacterial pattern formation. Discrete and Continuous DynSyst Series.2001; B1:339-362.
- HartmannD. Pattern formation in cultures of
*Bacillus subtilis*. J Biol Syst.2004; 12:179-199. - FengPand ZhouZF. Finite travelling wave solutions in a degenerate cross-diffusion model for bacterial colony. CommunPure ApplAnal. 2007; 6: 1145-1265.
- Mansour MBA. Traveling wave solutions for doubly degenerate reaction diffusion equation.AnziamJ. 2010; 52: 101-109.
- ArrowsmithDAand PlaceCM. An introduction to dynamical systems. Cambridge University Press. 1990.
- PressHW, et al. Numerical recipes. Cambridge University Press, London New York. 1986.