Azo Dyes Decolorization Using White Rot Fungi
Waste water from different industries is one of the major environmental concerns in present scenario. Textile industry uses many kinds of synthetic dyes as Azo, anthraquinne, polycyclic compounds and triphenylmethane and among them Azo dyes is most commonly preferable. Azo dyes cause serious environmental issue because these dyes are obstinate to biodegradation. Textile industries discharge large amounts of dyes about 10-200 mg/L and 10-20% of the dye along with organic and inorganic accessory chemicals because the uptake of these dyes by fabrics is very poor. Industrial effluents containing about 5-10% of dyestuffs, which is usually discharge into water bodies. This highly colored textile wastewater severely affects photosynthesis in plant. It also has an impact on aquatic life due to low light penetration and oxygen consumption. So, this textile wastewater must be treated before their discharge. Physical or chemical methods are costly, energy consuming, low efficient to environment and generate secondary sludge. Thus biological degradation most preferable for textile dyes degradation will be eco-friendly, do not generate secondary sludge and cost effective method. Fungi especially white rot fungi (WRF), produces Proxidases (Lignin peroxidase, LiP and Manganese peroxidase, MnP) and Phenol oxidase (Laccase) can be used for bioremediation of Azo dyes. In this article, decolorization and biodegradation of Azo dyes, abilities of WRF are reviewed.