Department of Agricultural Sciences, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, Netherlands
Received: 07-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. JBS-22-55181; Editor assigned: 09-Feb-2022, PreQC No. JBS-22-55181 (PQ); Reviewed: 23-Feb-2022, QC No. JBS- 22-55181; Revised: 28-Feb-2022, Manuscript No. JBS- 22-55181; (R); Published: 07-Mar-2022, DOI: 10.4172/ 2320-0189.11.2.004
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Mycology is the study of fungus, including their genetic and biochemical features, classification, and usage by humans as a source of tinder, traditional medicine, food, and entheogens, as well as their risks, such as toxicity and infection. A mycologist is a scientist who works with fungi. Mycology overlaps with phytopathology, the study of plant diseases, and the two fields are inextricably linked since fungus account for the great majority of plant infections. Mycology was once considered a part of botany because, despite the fact that fungi are evolutionarily more closely connected to animals than plants, this relationship was not recognised until recently.
Elias Magnus Fries, Christian Hendrik Persoon, Anton de Bary, and Elizabeth Eaton were among the first mycologists. Pier Andrea Saccardo devised a technique for identifying imperfect fungus based on spore colour and morphology, which became the standard approach prior to DNA-based categorization. His ‘Sylloge’, which was a complete inventory of all the names that had been used for mushrooms, made him renowned. ‘Sylloge’ remains the only book of its sort that was both comprehensive and somewhat current for the botanical kingdom Fungi. The term mycology and the complementary term mycologist were first used in 1836 by M.J. Berkeley Toxins, antibiotics, and other secondary metabolites are produced by much fungus. Abraham Joffe, for example, examined the cosmopolitan (global) genus Fusarium and its toxins in relation to deadly outbreaks of alimentary toxic aleukia in humans. In their roles as symbionts, such as mycorrhizae, insect symbionts, and lichens, fungi are essential for life on Earth. Many fungi can degrade complex organic macromolecules like lignin, which is a more durable component of wood, as well as contaminants like xenobiotics, petroleum, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Fungi play an important part in the global carbon cycle by degrading these compounds. Fungi and other creatures that are usually classified as fungi, such as oomycetes and myxomycetes (slime moulds), are frequently economically and socially significant because they cause illnesses in animals (including humans) and plants. Aside from harmful fungus, a variety of fungal species play a significant role in the management of plant diseases caused by various pathogens. For example, members of the filamentous fungus genus Trichoderma are regarded as one of the most significant biological control agents for crop disease management as an alternative to chemical-based treatments. Humans are said to have begun harvesting mushrooms for sustenance in prehistoric times. Euripides' writings were the first to mention mushrooms (480-406 BC). The Greek philosopher ‘Theophrastos of Eresos’ (371-288 BC) may have been the first to attempt to classify plants in a systematic manner; mushrooms were thought to be plants lacking specific parts. Later, in his encyclopaedia ‘Naturalis historia’, Pliny the Elder (23–79 AD) wrote about truffles. Fungi and truffles are just the excess moisture or dirt of trees, rotten wood, and other decomposing materials, rather than herbs, roots, blossoms, or seeds. This is evident from the fact that all fungus and truffles, particularly those utilised for food, thrive in stormy and rainy weather. The publication of ‘Nova plantarum’ genera by Pier Antonio Micheli in 1737 marks the beginning of the modern period of mycology. This landmark book, published in Florence, set the groundwork for the systematic categorization of grasses, mosses, and fungi. In 1729, he coined the genus names Polyporus P. Micheli and Tuber P. Micheli, both of which are still in use today (though the descriptions were later amended as invalid by modern rules).