Department of Dentistry, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Received: 09-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. JPPS-22-60712; Editor assigned: 12-Mar-2022, PreQC No. JPPS-22-60712 (PQ); Reviewed: 25-Mar-2022, QC No JPPS- 22- 60712; Revised: 30-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. JPPS-22-60712 (R); Published: 06-Apr-2022, DOI: 10.2320-0189.10.3.005
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The illnesses of the mouth ("oral cavity" or "stoma"), jaws ("maxillae" or "gnath"), and related tissues such as salivary glands, temporomandibular joints, facial muscles, and perioral skin are referred to as oral and maxillofacial pathology (the skin around the mouth). The mouth is a vital organ that serves a variety of purposes. It is also susceptible to a number of medical and dental problems. The specialty of oral and maxillofacial pathology is concerned with the diagnosis and investigation of diseases affecting the oral and maxillofacial region, as well as their causes and effects. It is sometimes regarded as dental and pathological specialty. Instead, the term head and neck pathology is sometimes used, implying that the pathologist also deals with otorhinolaryngologic (ear, nose, and throat) disorders in addition to maxillofacial illnesses. There is some overlap between head and neck pathologists' and endocrine pathologists' skills in this capacity.
A full medical, dental, social, and psychological history, as well as an assessment of certain lifestyle risk factors that may be involved in disease processes, are essential components of any diagnosis. Following that, a complete clinical examination of extra-oral and intra-oral hard and soft tissues is performed. Although a diagnosis and treatment regimen can sometimes be determined just on history and examination, it is always a good idea to develop a list of differential diagnoses. Differential diagnosis enables decision-making about what additional investigations are required in each case (Screening tests, imaging (radiographs, CBCT, CT, MRI, ultrasound), and histology are among the various types of studies used to diagnose oral and maxillofacial illnesses (biopsy).
Oral and maxillofacial pathology, formerly known as oral pathology, is a field of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and research of disorders that affect the mouth and face (i.e. the mouth, the jaws and the face). It can be classified as a dental and pathological specialty. Oral pathology and oral and maxillofacial surgery, as well as oral medicine, are closely related specialties. Oral and maxillofacial pathology specialists and oral medicine practitioners, both dental specialties, are responsible for the clinical assessment and diagnosis of oral mucosal disorders. A biopsy is obtained and examined microscopically by a pathologist when a microscopic examination is required. Oral and maxillofacial pathology is defined by the American Dental Association as “The specialty of dentistry and pathology that deals with the nature, detection, and management of disorders affecting the oral and maxillofacial areas." It is a branch of study that studies the causes, procedures, and consequences of various illnesses.
Many different types of tissues in the head can be affected by oral and maxillofacial disease. Various disease processes affect distinct tissues in this region, resulting in a variety of results. The mouth, jaws, and orofacial skin are all affected by a variety of disorders. The pathologies that might affect the oral and maxillofacial region are listed below; some are more frequent than others. Cleft lip and palate is one of the most prevalent multi-factorial congenital disorders, affecting 1 in 500-1000 live births and manifesting itself in a variety of ways. The most frequent type is combined cleft lip and palate, which accounts for around half of all occurrences, while isolated cleft lip affects about 20% of patients. People who have a cleft lip or palate are less social and have decreased self-esteem, anxiety, and sadness as a result of their facial abnormal. One of the main goals of cleft treatment is to improve social acceptance through surgical reconstruction. A cleft lip is an opening of the upper lip caused by the failure of the medial nasal processes to fuse with the palatal processes, whereas a cleft palate is an opening of the soft and hard palate in the mouth caused by the palatal shelves failing to fuse together. The fundamental purpose of the palate is to separate the nasal and oral cavities, without which the patient will have difficulty swallowing, eating, and speaking. As a result, the quality of life and, in some situations, some functions are affected.
In the United Kingdom, there are about 30 consultant oral and maxillofacial pathologists. A dental degree is required, but not a medical degree. In the United Kingdom, the quickest way to become an oral pathologist is to complete two years of general professional training and then five years of diagnostic histopathology training. The trainee is eligible to apply for specialist registration after passing the relevant Royal College of Pathologists exams and receiving a Certificate of Completion of Specialist Training. In the United Kingdom, many oral and maxillofacial pathologists are clinical academics who have completed a PhD either before or during their training. Oral and maxillofacial pathologists are typically employed by dental or medical schools in the United Kingdom, and their clinical work is done at university hospitals.