Department of Social Sciences, Bahir Dar University, Bahir Dar City, Ethiopia
Received: 04-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. JSS-22-56300; Editor assigned: 08- Mar-2022, Pre QC No. JSS -22-56300(PQ); Reviewed: 22- Mar-2022, QC No. JSS -22-56300; Accepted: 25-Mar-2022, Manuscript No. JSSS -22-56300(A); Published: 1-Apr-2022, DOI: 10.4172/ J Social Sciences.8.3.001.
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The science of crime and aberrant conduct is known as criminology. Criminology is a social and behavioral science interdisciplinary area that largely depends on the work of sociologists, political scientists, economists, psychologists, philosophers, psychiatrists, biologists, social anthropologists, and law professors. Criminologists are people who research and analyze crime and the responses of society to crime. Some criminologists focus on the tendencies of criminal suspects. Criminologists, on the whole, perform studies and investigations, formulating hypotheses and examining empirical patterns.
Criminology; Psychologists; Psychiatrists; Biologists; Economists
The analysis of the nature of crime and criminals, the origins of criminal law, the etiology of crime, the social response to crime, and the operation of law enforcement organizations and prison facilities are all topics that criminologists are interested in. In general, criminology addresses three areas: first, the nature of criminal law, its administration, and the conditions under which it evolves; second, the etiology of crime and criminal personality; third, crime control and rehabilitative services for offenders. Legislative entities, law enforcement agencies, judicial institutions, penal institutions, and educational, private, and public social agencies all fall within the sociology focus.
There are three major approaches of criminology.
• People choose to commit criminal acts, as per the School of economics. According to the paper published, they are motivated by a desire for pleasure or aversion to suffering, according to Bentham's utilitarianism concept.
• The Positivist School of Criminology applies scientific theory to the field of criminology. It concentrates on the factors that contribute to criminal behaviour.
• As per the Chicago School, crime is caused by "social disorganization," which is defined as "the incapacity of a community to realize common ideals and maintain effective social controls" in the Encyclopedia of Criminology and Criminal Justice.
Their primary objectives were to lower legal punishments, persuade judges to create a sequence of no punishment without law, minimize the use of capital penalty, and humanize correctional institutions. They were partially effective, but in their quest to make criminal justice more just, they attempted to establish rather abstract and artificial equations between crimes and penalties, ignoring the particular criminal defendant's specific traits and needs. Furthermore, the primary goal of punishment was retribution, followed by deterrent, with reformation falling far behind. It concluded that there must be an order to those things that are replicated with astounding consistency, and always in the same way, based on these patterns. Later, Quetelet maintained that criminal behavior is a result of society's structure, claiming that society prepares the crime and the guilty are merely the instruments used to carry it out.
In criminology, both the quality and variety of research have improved. In India, criminology has evolved into a truly interdisciplinary subject. Despite its faults identified and voiced in this report, criminology as a field of study and research holds enormous promise and potential for a developing country. It can help to the greater goal of safe living and order in society if cultivated and grown in the right way and direction. It is important to address the gaps and challenges revealed in the research survey in order to develop and sustain criminology as a field of learning and applicability. The UGC, ICSSR, and other institutions already engaged in this field must show more care for this issue. The UGC could consider establishing criminology centers of excellence. The subject can also be brought up with government agencies and organizations, who may want to include it in their recruitment process.