Department of Pharmaceutical Analysis, Panjab University, Chandigarh, India
Received: 24-May-2023, Manuscript No. JPA-23-102258; Editor assigned: 26-May-2023, Pre QC No. JPA-23-102258 (PQ); Reviewed: 12-Jun-2023, QC No. JPA-23-102258; Revised: 19-Jun-2023, Manuscript No. JPA-23-102258 (R); Published: 26-Jun-2023, DOI: 10.4172/2322-0066.12.2.009
Citation: Patel P. Advancements of Pharmaceuticals through Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) to Ensure Drug Quality. RRJ Pharm Anal. 2023;12:009
Copyright: © 2023 Patel P. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.
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Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) is a powerful analytical tool that plays a major role in the field of pharmaceutical analysis. NMR is a non-destructive technique that relies on the properties of atomic nuclei to provide structural and functional information about molecules. This article will explore the fundamentals of NMR and its applications in the analysis of drugs and drug products. NMR is based on the phenomenon of nuclear spin. Atomic nuclei with an odd number of protons and/or neutrons have an intrinsic magnetic moment or spin. When an external magnetic field is applied, the nuclei align themselves with the field either parallel or anti-parallel. The energy difference between the two orientations is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field and the magnetic properties of the nucleus.
When a sample is placed in a magnetic field and subjected to Radio Frequency (RF) radiation, NMR occurs. The RF radiation causes resonance, which is the absorption of energy by the nuclei causing them to change their alignment from parallel to anti-parallel or vice versa. The resonance frequency is proportional to the strength of the magnetic field and the chemical environment of the nuclei within the sample. The absorbed energy is then re-emitted as a signal that is detected by an NMR spectrometer. The signal is a complex Fourier transformed spectrum that provides information about the structural and functional properties of the sample.
Applications in pharmaceutical analysis
• NMR is an invaluable tool in the pharmaceutical industry as it allows for the analysis of small molecules, intermediates, and complex drug formulations. The technique is capable of providing detailed information on the chemical structure, purity, and composition of drug molecules.
• One of the primary uses of NMR in pharmaceutical analysis is for the identification and structural elucidation of drug molecules. NMR can determine the chemical structure of a molecule, as well as provide valuable information about the stereochemistry, functional groups, and substituent positions. This information is critical for the development of new drugs and for ensuring the quality of existing drug products.
• Another important application of NMR in pharmaceutical analysis is the quantification of drug impurities. NMR is capable of detecting trace levels of impurities in drug formulations, which are often present as a result of the drug synthesis process or product degradation. NMR can determine the chemical structure of these impurities and provide valuable information for the development of impurity-specific assays.
• The technique is used for the identification and structural characterization of drug molecules, as well as for the quantification of drug impurities. NMR is also utilized for the study of drug-drug and drug-excipient interactions, which are critical for the formulation and development of safe and effective drug products.
• Drug-drug interactions are a significant concern in the pharmaceutical industry. When two or more drugs are co-administered, they can interact with one another and affect the efficacy and safety of the treatments. NMR is an excellent tool for studying drug-drug interactions because it can provide information on the nature and strength of the interactions.
• NMR can be used to measure the binding affinity and dissociation constants of drug molecules. This information allows scientists to predict how drugs will interact with one another and to develop more effective treatment regimens.