Department of Veterinary and Agricultural Sciences, IIT Kolkata, Kolkata, India
Received: 08-Apr -2022, Manuscript No. JZS-22-60927; Editor assigned: 11-Apr -2022, Pre QC No. JZS-22-60927 (PQ); Reviewed: 22-Apr-2022, QC No. JZS-22-60927; Revised: 25-Apr -2022, Manuscript No. JZS-22-60927 (R); Published: 29-Apr-2022, DOI: 10.4172/2321-6190.10.3.001.
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Bluetongue illness is a noncontagious, insect-borne viral disease that affects ruminants such as sheep, goats, buffalo, deer, dromedaries, and antelope. The virus that causes it is Blue Tongue Virus (BTV). Culicoides imicola, Culicoides variipennis, and other culicoids are the vectors of the virus. BTV causes an acute disease in sheep that is associated with a high rate of morbidity and mortality. Goats, cattle, and other domestic animals, as well as wild ruminants, are all infected with BTV.
High temperature, profuse salivation, swelling of the face and tongue, and cyanosis of the tongue are the most common symptoms. Swelling of the lips and tongue gives the tongue its characteristic blue colour, albeit this is only seen in a small percentage of the animals. Nasal symptoms such as nasal discharge and stertorous breathing may be present. Some animals have foot lesions, which begin with coronitis and lead to lameness. Knee-walking can occur in sheep as a result of this. The frequent shifting of the feet of cattle has earned bluetongue the nickname "dancing sickness." In seriously injured animals, neck torsion is found. The incubation period is 5–20 days, with full symptoms appearing within a month. The mortality rate is typically low, but in sensitive sheep breeds, it is very high. Local sheep breeds in Africa may have zero mortality, whereas imported breeds may have up to 90% mortality.
The pathogenic virus Blue Tongue Virus (BTV) of the genus Orbivirus, of the Reoviridae family, causes bluetongue. This virus presently has twenty-six different serotypes. The viral particle is made up of ten double-stranded RNA strands encased in two protein shells. BTV does not have a lipid envelope like other arboviruses. The particle's diameter is 86 nanometers. The structure of the 70 nm core was solved in 1998, and it was the biggest atomic structure ever solved at the time. BTV attachment and penetration into the target cell are mediated by the two outer capsid proteins VP2 and VP5. The virus makes first contact with the cell via VP2, starting virus endocytosis via receptor-mediated endocytosis.
Cores generated in vitro from virions by physical or proteolytic treatments that remove the outer capsid and activate the BTV transcriptase are likely to be similar to sub viral particles. In BTV-infected cells, three Non-Structural (NS) proteins, NS1, NS2, and NS3 (and a related NS3A), are synthesized in addition to the seven structural proteins.
Veterinary authorities in Germany increased their restrictions after numerous instances were detected in the southern Swedish provinces of Smland, Halland, and Skne, as well as in areas of the Netherlands bordering Germany, in autumn 2008. BTV infections often last 60 days or less, which isn't long enough for BTV to survive until the next spring. Bluetongue is a disease that has been found in Australia, the United States, Africa, the Middle East, Asia, and Europe. The article Parasitic flies of Domestic Animals depicts the BTV transmission cycle in detail. Its presence is seasonal in the Mediterranean countries impacted, with temperatures dropping and matures midge vectors being killed by harsh frosts. During milder winters, viral survival and vector lifespan are observed. Bluetongue instances were first discovered in the Netherlands in August 2006, followed by Belgium, Germany, and Luxembourg. The first incidence of bluetongue in the Czech Republic was discovered in a bull near Cheb, close the German border, in 2007.
The virus has since moved from cattle to sheep in the United Kingdom. Bluetongue had become a severe danger in Scandinavia and Switzerland by October 2007, with the first outbreak in Denmark. Although the disease poses no harm to people, cattle, goats, and, in particular, sheep are among the most vulnerable domestic ruminants in the UK. Serotype-specific protection is provided by Live Attenuated Vaccines (LAVs). Neutralizing antibodies against unincluded serotypes can be induced by multiserotype LAV cocktails, and successive vaccinations with three distinct pentavalent LAV cocktails can result in wide protection. These pentavalent cocktails contain a total of 15 serotypes: serotypes 1 through 14, as well as serotypes 19 and 20.